Geo2:Lecture 2

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  1. Ecosystem productivity is affected by
    • –Source of energy–Source of building blocks for life
    • •Macronutrients:
    • -CHONPS & micronutrients: Ca, Mg, Na, K, C
  2. Primary productivity (ie plant growth) driven by resources
    • –Energy (Light)
    • –Temperature
    • –H2O (Moisture)
    • –Nutrients
  3. Energy Sources
    • 1. Sun 
    • 2. Biochemical energy 
    • -proteins, carbs
    • 3. Sulfur and geothermal energy 
  4. Primary production
    -Determines amount of energy available to sustain all organisms (primary producers)
  5. Gross primary production
    -total amount of Carbon that enters ecosystems through Photosynthesis
  6. Net primary production
    -the net amount of primary production after the costs of plant respiration are included. Therefore, NPP = GPP - R
  7. Response to temperature Example
    -Antartic icefish produce their own antifreeze and can live at subfreezing temps
  8. Extreme themorphiles
    Bacteria and Archaea in hotsprings and hydrothermal vents have heat-shock proteins
  9. Plant strategies for responding to temperature
    • 1. Deciduousness 
    • -period of dormancy in response to extreme temperatures
    • 2. Shed frost-sensitive structures
    • 3. Evaporative cooling by transpiration
  10. Too much water can cause
    • -O2 diffusion
    • -Special adaptation:Mangroves
  11. Sclerophyllous
    small, hard and waxy leaves
  12. Plant strategies for drought
    • 1. Drought decidousness 
    • 2. Senesce aboveground parts
    • 3. Sclerophyllous (small, hard and waxy) leaves
    • 4. Change leaf orientation
    • 5. Deep roots
    • 6. Water storage in trunk
    • 7. Leaf hairs
    • 8. Temporally partition photosynthesis (CAM
  13. Animal strategies for drought
    • 1. Behavior 
    • -reducing exposure and activity at hottest times
    • 2. Physiology 
    • – specialized kidneys
    • –Ex. kangaroo rat
    • allows them to greatly concentrate their urine. This high urine concentration allows them to use much less water than most other mammals in order to excrete wast
  14. Species 
    related organisms that are capable of interbreeding 
  15. Heterotrophs
    -An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent organic substances for nutrition.
  16. Autotrophs
    organism that can make their own food
  17. Anaerobic bacteria
    -does not need oxygen and gets energy through chemosynthesis
  18. chlorophyll 
    a green pigment which captures the sun's energy 
  19. Black smoker
    -deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, named after the dark, soot-like material ejected from “chimney” formations on the ocean floor
  20. Transpiration
    -the process by which water vapor escapes from living plants and enters the atmosphere
  21. Mechanism of transpiration
    -Stomata:special transpiration cells
  22. Succulents
    • -plants that have enlarged leaves and stems that contain water holding tissue. 
    • -Ex. Prickly-Pear Cactus
  23. 3 categories of organisms in an ecosystem
    • 1. producers
    • 2. consumers
    • 3. decomposers
  24. Producers
    • -photosynthetic bacteria, plants and algae
    • -use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and into other biochemical molecules
  25. Consumers
    • -organisms that ingest other organisms as their food source
    • 1. Primary consumers (snails, insects)
    • 2. Secondary consumers (mammals, birds)
    • 3. Tertiary consumers (lions, sharks, whales)
  26. Decomposers 
    -organisms that feed on detritus, or decaying organic matter
  27. Omnivores
    -organisms that feed on both plant and animals 
  28. food web
    complex trophic structure
  29. Primary productivity 
    refers to the formation of new organic matter through photosynthesis by plants
  30. Secondary productivity 
    refers to the rate of formation of new organic material at the consumer's level 
  31. Weather
    -the condition of the atmosphere at any particular time and place
  32. climate
    -the average weather condition over a long period of time
  33. The Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of
    • 1. Nitrogen
    • 2. Oxygen
  34. Atmospheric greenhouse effect 
    -because greenhouse gases allow most of the sun’s visible light to reach the surface, and absorb a good portion of the earth’s outgoing infrared radiation
  35. Main greenhouse gases
    • 1. Water vapor (60%)
    • 2. Carbon dioxide (26%)
  36. Orographic lifting
    processes that lift air
  37. Windard side of the mountain (Sierra Nevada)
    • -wet side of the mountain
    • -As the wind passes the windward side of the mountain it rises and cools the air around it. -Therefore it will have more precipitation
  38. Leeward side of the mountain (Sierra Nevada)
    • -dry side of the mountain
    • -the air rises over the mountain and the drops down and warms on the leeward side
  39. The Koppen system
    -A widely used classification of world climates based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation 
  40. Five major climatic types
    • 1. Tropical moist climates
    • -all months are warm
    • 2. Dry climates
    • -deficient precipitation most of the year 
    • 3. Most mid-latitude climates with mild winters
    • -warm-to-hot summers with mild winters 
    • 4. Moist mid-latitude climates with severe winters
    • -warm summers and cold winters
    • 5. Polar climates
    • -Extremely cold winters and summers
  41. Microclimate
    -climate associated with a small area at or near Earth's surface
  42. slope aspect
    -the direction a mountain of hill slope faces in respect to the sun's rays. 
  43. Plankton
    organisms that drift with oceanic currents
  44. Nekton 
    interdependently moving animals
  45. Benthos
    organisms that live on or in the ocean bottom 
  46. edaphic factors
    • 1. Soil
    • 2. Substrate
    • 3. topography 
    • 4. Minerals
    • 5. Ph
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Geo2:Lecture 2
2013-02-06 08:56:55

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