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population
a population is the complete set of individuals, objects, or scores that the investigator is interested in studying.

sample
a sample is a subset of the population

variable
a variable is any property or characteristic of some event, object, or person that may have different values at different times depending on the conditions

Independent variable (IV)
the IV in an experiment is the variable that is systematically manipulated by the investigator

Dependent Variable (DV)
the DV in an experiment is the variable that the investigator measures to determine the effect of the independent variable

Data
the measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment are called data

statistic
a statistic is a number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample

parameter
a parameter is a number calculated on population data that quantifies a characteristc of the population

Descriptive statistics...
is concerned with techniques that are used to describe or characterize the obtained data

Inferential statistics...
involves techniques that are used the obtained sample data to infer to populations

Observational studies
no variables are actively manipulated> can't say anything about causality; includes 1) naturalistic observation, 2) parameter estimation, 3) correlation

True experiments
causality is assigned> manipulate one variable, compare to unmanipulated situation> is there an effect?

Random sampling:
equal probability of being selected for the study

Nominal scale:
lowest level of measurement; often used with variables that are qualitative in nature; e.g. types of jogging shoes, gender, nationality, etc

Ordinal scale:
possess a relatively low level of property of “magnitude”; objects that are being measured are “rank ordered”; e.g. order an individual places in a racefirst, second third

Interval scale:
possesses the properties of magnitude and an equal interval between adjacent units; no absolute zero point; e.g., Celsius scale

Ratio scale:
same properties as Interval scale, but possesses a true zero point; e.g., reaction time, weight, age, etc.

Acronym for measurement Scales?
 NOIR:
 Nominal
 Ordinal
 Interval
 Ratio

Continuous variable:
can theoretically have an infinite number of values between adjacent units on the scale.

Discrete variable:
there are no possible values between adjacent units on the scale.

Real limits of a variable:
those values that are above and below the recorded value by one half of the smallest measuring unit of the scale.

A frequency distribution...
presents the score values and their frequency of occurrence

a relative frequency distribution...
indicates the proportion of the total number of scores that occurs in each interval

A cumulative frequency distribution...
indicates the number of scores that fall below the upper real limit of each interval

cumulative percentage distribution ...
indicates the percentage of scores that fall below the upper real limit of each interval

a percentile of percentile point...
is the value on the measurement scale below which a specified percentage of scores in the distribution fall

the percentile rank...
of a score is the percentage of scores with values lower then the score in question

a curve is symmetrical ...
if when folded in half the two sides coincide

if a curve is not symmetrical, it is...
skewed

when a curve is positively skewed,...
most of the scores occur at the lower values of the horizontal axis and the curve tails off toward the higher end.

when a curve is negatively skewed,...
most of the scores occur at the higher values of the horizontal axis and the curve tails off toward the lower end

When constructing a Frequency Disstribution of Grouped scores. What is the formula for Determining interval width ( )?

The arithmetic mean is defined as...
the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores

 (mean of sample)
 N = number of scores

(mean of population set of scores)

The median is ...
defined as the scale value below which 50% of the scores fall. It is therefore the same thing as

The mode is...
defined as the most frequent scores in the distribution. (when all scores in the distribution have the same frequency it is customary to say that the distribution has no mode)




The range is...
 defined as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in the distribution

A deviation score...
tells how far away the raw score is from the mean of its distribution

in equation form, what is a deviation score for sample data and for population data?

in equation form, what is the standard deviation score of a sample by the raw scores method?

A zscore is...
a transformed score that designates how many standard deviation units the corresponding raw score is above or below the mean

?
for population and sample
 (for sample)
 (for population)

A scatter plot is...
a graph of paired X and Y values

A linear relationship between two variables is...
one in which the relationship can be most accurately represented by a straight line.

finding slope ? i.e. the slope of a line

Regression is ...
a topic that considers using the relationship between two or more variables for prediction

A regression line is...
a best fitting line used for prediction

A perfect relationship is...
one in which a positive or negative relationship exists and all of the points fall on the line.

An imperfect relationship is...
one in which a relationship exits, but all of the points do not fall on the line.

A correlation coefficient...
expresses quantitatively the magnitude and direction of the relationship.

Pearson r is a measure of...
the extent to which paired scores occupy the same or opposite positions within their own distributions.

Pearson

The leastsquares regression line is...
the prediction line that minimizes the total error of prediction, according to the leastsquares criterion of .

Spearman rho is ...
used for linear relationships when one or both of the variables are only of ordinal scaling


the regression constant is equal to...

the regression constant is given by...

