AP 1 ( Ch 6)

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acis3345
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198329
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AP 1 ( Ch 6)
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2013-02-15 05:47:41
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Bones
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Anatomy Physiology 1 Bones
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  1. Axial Skeleton
    The bones of the center, or axis, of the body
  2. Appendicular Skeleton
    The bones of the upper and lower extremities. 
  3. Axial Bones
    • Skull
    •   Cranial bones
    •   Ear bones
    •   Face bones
    • Spine
    •   vertibrate
    • Thorax
    •   Ribs
    •   Sternum
    • Hyoid Bone
  4. Sinuses
    • Spaces or cavities within some cranial bones
    • Make head light enough to hold upright
  5. Paranasal Sinuses
    Opens into the nose
  6. Sutures
    The two parietal bones of the skull form immovable joints
  7. Fontanels
    • Area of incomplete ossification
    • "Soft spots"
  8. Regions of the Spine
    • 6 different regions (top to bottom)
    •  cervical region
    •  thoracic region
    •  lumbar region
    •  sacrum
    •  coccyx
  9. Cervical (bones of the spine)
    Upper 7 in neck region
  10. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Second set of vertebrae
    • 12 in total
    • Ribs attach to these
  11. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Third set of vertebrae
    • 5 in total
    • Located in the small of the back
  12. Sacrum
    • 5 seperate bones in children
    • 1 bone fused together in adulthood
  13. Coccyx
    • Child, 3-5 seperate bones
    • fused together in adulthood
  14. Concave Curves
    • Cervical Region
    • Lumbar Region
  15. Convex Curves
    • Thoracic Region
    • Sacral
  16. Thorax
    • Comprised of:
    •  12 pairs of ribs
    •  Sternum
    •  Thoracic vertebrae
  17. True Ribs
    • First 7 pairs
    • attached by costal cartilage 
  18. False Ribs
    • 8, 9, and 10 pairs
    • attached to the cartilage of the seventh ribs 
  19. Floating Ribs
    • Last two pairs
    • NOT attached to any cartilage
  20. Appendicular Bones
    • The appendages
    • Divided into two sections
    •  Upper Extremities
    •  Lower Extremities
  21.  Bones of the Upper Extremity
    • Clavicle
    • Scaplula
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • Ulna
    • Carpal Bones
    • Metacarpals
    • Phalanges 
  22. Clavicle
    • 2 one on either side
    • Collarbones
    • Only joints in between the pectoral & axial skeleton are those in the clavicle and sternum
  23. Scapula
    • 2 one on either side
    • Shoulder blades
    • scapula + clavicle form pectoral acromion process
  24. Humerus
    • 2 Arm bones
    • Muscles attached to the greater tubercle and to the medial and later epicondyle
    • articulates with the ulna the surgical neck is a common fracture site
  25. Radius
    • 2
    • Lies on the thumb side of the arm
    • muscles attached to the radial tuberosity and styloid process
  26. Ulna
    • 2 lies on the little finger side of the arm
    • olecranon process of ulna is known as the elbow, or funny bone
    • Muscles are attached to the cornonoid process and the styloid process
  27. Carpal Bones
    • Short bones at the upper end of the hand
    • anatomical wrist
  28. Metacarpals
    Forms the framework of the palm of the hand
  29. Phalanges
    • Finger bones
    • 3 in each finger
    • 2 in each thumb
  30. Bones of the lower extremities
    Coxal Bone=pelvis

  31. Coxal Bone (Ilium)
  32. Femur Bone
  33. Patella
    Knee cap
  34. Tibia
    Shin Bone
  35. Fibula
    • Lateral side of the body
  36. Foot Bones
    Tarsal
    Metatarsals
    Phalanges
  37. Articulations
    • Joints
    • 3 types
    • Synarthroses
    • Amphiarthroses
    • Siarthroses
  38. Synarthrosis
    • Firbrous connective tissue holds articulating bones close together 
    • No movement
    • example: cranial sutures
  39. Amphriarthroses
    • cartlage connects articulating bone
    • slight movement
    • example: vertebrae
  40. Diarthroses
    • Free movement
    • Joint cavity with layer of cartilage over the ends of the two bones
  41. Joint capsule
    • body's strongest and toughest material
    • connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane
  42. Ligaments
    Cords or band made up of strong fibrous connective tissue as the joint capsule
  43. Articular Cartilage
    • over the joint ends acts like rubber heal on shoe 
    • (over the ends of the bone, cushion)
  44. Bursa
    shock absorbing cushion around the bones
  45. Types of joints
    • Hinge
    • Pivot
    • Saddle
    • Condyloid
    • Ball & socket
    • Gliding
  46. Hinge
    • Elbow
    • knee
  47. Pivot
    Head
  48. Saddle
    thumb
  49. Condyloid
    not sure
  50. Ball and Socket
    • hip
    • shoulder
  51. Gliding
    vertebrae
  52. Flexion
    • reduces angle of a joint
    • bending the elbow
  53. extersion
    • increase the angle of a joint
    • straighten the elbow
  54. rotation
    head neck joints
  55. circumduction
    move the arm around in a circle
  56. abduction
    arm from side of body to above the head
  57. adduction
    arm from above the head to the side of the body

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