BIO 116 Ch. 12
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Is HIV the same in animals?
Do animals have SIMILAR viruses to HIV?
What is the hybrid virus they use for testing in monkeys?
SHIV - Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus
How have mice been used to test for antivirals?
they are injected with B and T lymphocytes so they can be infected with HIV for testing
Why is an HIV vaccine so hard to create?
HIV keeps fucking mutating and evading the immune system
Have there been HIV vaccines?
yes, but only really in monkeys
What would a combination vaccine need to stimulate?
Humoral (antibodies) and cell mediated (T cell)
viruses that are designed to not cause infection but can stimulate immune response.
Questions for developing antivirals:
- 1) best method for delivery to body
- 2) what are the side effects
- 3) is the compound effective
- 4) is the compound MORE effective than current drugs
Phase I Clinical trials:
uninfected people are tested to determine the side effects and safety of the drug, and also determine the most effective delivery and dosage
Phase II Clinical trials:
small # of HIV+ people are given the drug to evaluate the effectiveness (efficacy) by a reduction in symptoms, reduction in measured viral infection, or an increase in immune function
Phase III Clinical trials:
many HIV+ people participate in efficacy studies conducted in many different locations. Once the drug passes this phase, the drug can be approved by the FDA.
What is important to do to current drugs?
keep improving them!
How does Fuseon work?
blocks entry after HIV has bound to the target cell
bind to viral RNA and may lead to the destruction of the new complex
cut viral RNA thus inactivating any further activity
What can be used to restore the immune system?
stems cells and bone marrow transplants
Although there are vaccines and shit for HIV, what else needs to be treated?
What have community-based trials created?
created opportunities for administration of experimental drugs by local physicians
a way for patients that live too far away from a research hospital to participate through their individual doctor
for diseases that take year to develop, alternate endpoints are decided on to determine effectiveness (with HIV, if the patient developed HIV antibodies)
Two main goals of HIV education:
- understanding about prevention
- understanding and compassion
What is research necessary for?
- education and prevention
- developing drugs agains HIV
What is optimistic about HIV?
we have time on our side because HIV takes a shitload of time to develop
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