Geo2:Chapter 3

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Geo2:Chapter 3
2013-02-06 05:13:45

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  1. Ranges of tolerance
    -determine where on earth that species may be found, and species with wide ranges of tolerance will be most widely distributed
  2. Ecological optimum 
    -refers to the environmental conditions under which a species will prosper
  3. Heliotropic (Solar-tracking) plants
    • -change position during the day to increase/decrease exposure to light
    • -Ex. Sunflower
  4. Phenology
    -study of seasonal patterns of plant and animal life
  5. Phodoperiodism
    relationship between phenology and light
  6. Temperature stress: Decidous plants
    -shed their leaves/needles all at the same time
  7. Temperature stress: Evergreen plants
    -replace their leaves/needles gradually 
  8. Seasonal dimorphism 
    -large leaves at winter and small leaves at summer 
  9. Poikilotherm
    • -animal whose temperature varies
    • Ex. cold-blooded, fish, reptiles
  10. Homeotherm
    • -animal that maintains stable internal body temperature
    • -Ex. warm-blooded mammals
  11. Hibernation 
    spending winter in a dormant condition 
  12. Estivation 
    • spending summer in a dormant condition 
    • Ex. Crocodile 
  13. Bergmann's Rule
    -the body size of the subspecies increases with the decreasing temperature of its habitat 
  14. Allen's Rule
    • -animals that live in cold climate have shorter extremities, such as ears, than related species that live in warm climates
    • -Ex. artic fox has tiny ears to conserve body heat in a cold environment
    • -Ex. desert fox has large ears ,the better to radiate away body heat
  15. Sclerophyll
    a plant with tough leathery evergreen leaves
  16. adaption to reduce transpiration 
    small stomata
  17. Xerophytes
    plants adapted to a dry environment
  18. Succulents 
    • plants that have enlarged leaves and stems that contain-water holding tissue
    • -Ex. Prickly-Pear Cactus
  19. Hygrophyte
    • water tolerant plant that requires a saturated or semisaturated environment
    • -Ex. Mangroves
  20. Hyrophytes
    • plants that grow in or under water
    • -Ex. Lily
  21. Stenohaline
    • organisms can tolerate small range of salinity change
    • -Ex. open-ocean organisms
  22. Euryhaline
    • organisms can tolerate large range of salinity change
    • Ex. Coastal-water organisms
  23. Halophytes
    salt tolerant species
  24. Calciphiles
    plants tolerant to calcium limestone
  25. habitat
    an environment where an organism lives
  26. Ecological Niche
    the combination of role and habitat for a particular species