Geo2: Chapter 4

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  1. Predation 
    • one organism consumes another
    • -carnivory only
  2. Venus fly trap
    -an insectivorous bog plant
  3. Generalists 
    can survive on a wide variety of food
  4. Specialists
    • require special food
    • Ex. Koala Bear eats Eucalyptus
  5. Keystone species
    • -a species that due to its presence or absence can greatly change the productivity, species composition or diversity of an ecosystem. 
    • -Ex. sea otter is a keystone species 
  6. Intraspecific competition 
    competition within the same species 
  7. Interspecific competition 
    competition between different species
  8. Resource exploitation
    • -(indirect competition) is when competing individuals or species indirectly impact each other negatively as they separately consume a resource.
    • -Ex. trees vying for the same nutrients and sunlight, with one eventually crowding out the other
  9. Interference competition
    • -(direct competition) is when individuals aggressively defend their use of resources which causes harm to another individual.
    • -An example is the Salvia genus of sage which uses chemicals to inhibit the growth of other plants
  10. Allelopathy 
    -chemicals produced by one plant inhibit growth/germination of another plant 
  11. Resource partitioning
    –in a biological community, various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization, thereby reducing direct competition.
  12. Symbiosis
    • -the ecological relationship between two species that live together
    • -Ex. Termites use simbiotic protozoans to digest cellulose
  13. Symbiosis of Coral and Algae
    • -Mutualistic 
    • -Polyps and microscopic algae
    • -Algae gives oxygen and nutrients and Polyps give shelter and protection 
  14. Rafflesia arnoldii
    • -the corpse flower
    • -largest flower on earth
    • -Pollination strategy
    • -odor of rotten meat 
    • -attracts flies to transport pollen from male to female
  15. Mutualism
    • involves a mutually beneficial relationship between two organisms.
    • Ex. Clown fish and anemones
    • -Both get protection and food from one another
  16. Commensalism 
    • -relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits without affecting the other
    • -Ex. Barnacles on grey whale
    • -Reef shark and remora
  17. Parasitism 
    • -relationship between organisms where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host
    • -Ex. lamprey on salmon
  18. The world's largest parasite tree
    Nuytsia floribunda
  19. Epiphyte
    a plant that grows upon another plant
  20. Mullerian mimicry 
    • -a type of mutualism 
    • -when two or more poisonous or unpalatable species closely resemble each other and are therefore avoided equally by all their natural predators.
    • -Ex. Wasps and bees
  21. Batesian mimicry
    • -when a species closely resembles an unpalatable or harmful species and therefore is similarly avoided by predators.
    • -Ex. Harmless longhorn beetle looks and acts like a wasp
  22. fundamental niche
    where a species can live in the absence of competition 
  23. realized niche
    real niche after a species is excluded from some areas by competition 
  24. Competitive exclusion principle
    the theory that species with identical niches cannot exist in the same geographic region because one would eventually drive the other to extinction 
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Geo2: Chapter 4
2013-02-06 11:28:54

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