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- one organism consumes another
- -carnivory only
Venus fly trap
-an insectivorous bog plant
can survive on a wide variety of food
- require special food
- Ex. Koala Bear eats Eucalyptus
- -a species that due to its presence or absence can greatly change the productivity, species composition or diversity of an ecosystem.
- -Ex. sea otter is a keystone species
competition within the same species
competition between different species
- -(indirect competition) is when competing individuals or species indirectly impact each other negatively as they separately consume a resource.
- -Ex. trees vying for the same nutrients and sunlight, with one eventually crowding out the other
- -(direct competition) is when individuals aggressively defend their use of resources which causes harm to another individual.
- -An example is the Salvia genus of sage which uses chemicals to inhibit the growth of other plants
-chemicals produced by one plant inhibit growth/germination of another plant
–in a biological community, various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization, thereby reducing direct competition.
- -the ecological relationship between two species that live together
- -Ex. Termites use simbiotic protozoans to digest cellulose
Symbiosis of Coral and Algae
- -Polyps and microscopic algae
- -Algae gives oxygen and nutrients and Polyps give shelter and protection
- -the corpse flower
- -largest flower on earth
- -Pollination strategy
- -odor of rotten meat
- -attracts flies to transport pollen from male to female
- involves a mutually beneficial relationship between two organisms.
- Ex. Clown fish and anemones
- -Both get protection and food from one another
- -relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits without affecting the other
- -Ex. Barnacles on grey whale
- -Reef shark and remora
- -relationship between organisms where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host
- -Ex. lamprey on salmon
The world's largest parasite tree
a plant that grows upon another plant
- -a type of mutualism
- -when two or more poisonous or unpalatable species closely resemble each other and are therefore avoided equally by all their natural predators.
- -Ex. Wasps and bees
- -when a species closely resembles an unpalatable or harmful species and therefore is similarly avoided by predators.
- -Ex. Harmless longhorn beetle looks and acts like a wasp
where a species can live in the absence of competition
real niche after a species is excluded from some areas by competition
Competitive exclusion principle
the theory that species with identical niches cannot exist in the same geographic region because one would eventually drive the other to extinction