Class Distinctions

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  1. Fish
    Oral Glands
    • t: polyphodont and homodont
    • OG: few
    • M: many fish, instead of plicae, have a spiral arrangement called the spiral valve in the ileum
    • P: dorsal and ventral (two)
  2. Amphibians Teeth
    Oral Glands
    •                                                               i.      Polyphodont and homodont
    •                                                             ii.      Oral glands
    •                                                           iii.      Villi in intestines
    •                                                           iv.      Single pancreas
  3. Reptiles
    TeethOral GlandsModificationsPancreas
    •                                                               i.      Polyphodont and homodont teeth
    •                                                             ii.      Oral glands
    •                                                           iii.      Villi in intestines
    •                                                           iv.      Single pancreas
  4. Birds
    GI Tract
    •                                                               i.      Edentate—have beaks and bills
    •                                                             ii.      GI tract of grain-eating birds
    • 1.      Esophagus- crop
    • a.      Store grain before digestion (storage area)
    • 2.      Stomach—FUNDUS (chemical digestion) and gizzard (mechanical digestion; seeds thrown back and forth; helps pulverize and grind down seeds)
    • 3.      No gall bladderin grain-eating birds
  5. Humans
    Oral Cavity
    • 1.      Salivary glands
    • a.      Mammals have three major sets of salivary glands
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Parotid
    • 1.      Under ear
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Sublingual
    • 1.      Under tongue
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Submandibular
    • 1.      Around mandible
    • b.      Saliva and salivary amylase
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Salivary amylase is the enzyme that begins digestion of carbohydrates
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Just think about food to salivate! 
  6. Humans
    Stomach Parts
    • 1.      Main part is the fundus
    • 2.      Narrow part is the pylorus, where the pyloric sphincter is
    • 3.      Flattened mucosa has holes, openings into gastric glands, called gastric pits (beneath lumen)
  7. Gastric Pits of Human Stomach contain
    • chief cells, which secrete pepsinogen
    • a.      Contain parietal cells, which secrete hydrocholoric acid
    • b.      cells that release the hormone, gastrin
    • mucus
  8. Pepsinogen
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Pepsinogen generally is called a zygomen
    • 1.      Inactive form of an enzyme
    • a.      Not active; won’t digest anything 
  9. HCl
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      HCl is needed to activate pepsinogen to pepsin which is a protein-splitting enzyme that begins the digestion of protein
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Because of acidity, chyme has an acidity of 2
    • 1.      Needs to be acidic to activate pepsinogen
  10. Gastrin
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hormone that increases gastric motility (enhances churning and peristalsis) and also increases gastric juice release
    • 1.      Gastrin and parasympathetic do the same thing and work at the same time
  11. Mucus
    protects lining
  12. Small intestine adn enzymes
    • 1.      All of the enzymes present in the small intestine come from the small intestinal gland, pancreas, have bile
    • a.      They won’t function in acidic environment
  13. What must happen to acid chyme?
    •     i.      Acid chyme has to be neutralized
    • 1.      It’s the sodium bicarbonate salts from the pancreas that neutralize the acid chyme when it comes in the small intestines 
  14. Small Intestine Modifications in Humans
    • 1.      The small intestine projects the villi and sends a small part below the villus
    • a.      The portion of the mucosa that dips below the luminal surface are the intestinal glands
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Called Krypts of Lieberkuhn 
  15. Krypts of Lieberkuhn
    • 1.      Name of small intestinal glands
    • 2.      Secrete lots of enzymes
    • a.      Lipases, nucleases, peptidases
    • 3.      Also secretes some hormones
    • a.      One is secretin
  16. What does secretin do?
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      An intestinal hormone which is released when acid chyme enters the small intestines
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Goes out and affects pancreas, causing pancreas to secrete sodium bicarbonate salts
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      Secretin controls sodium bicarbonate salt release (acts when acid chyme enters the small intestine) 
Card Set:
Class Distinctions
2013-02-06 14:22:05
BIO 220

Nutrition and Digestion
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