Geo2: Chapter 6

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dante01
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198373
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Geo2: Chapter 6
Updated:
2013-02-06 09:38:59
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midterm
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  1. Biome
    - large ecosystems on the Earth's surface that are definedby the types of animals and plants living there
  2. Community 
    a group of species that live in a particular habitat
  3. Ecotone
    the overlap or zone of transition between two plant or animal communities 
  4. Edge effect
    a change in species composition at the boundary between two ecosystems
  5. Forest
    • -trees growing closed together
    • -generally continuous (closed canopy)
  6. woodlands
    • -tree-dominated 
    • -trees are spaced widely apart (open canopy)
  7. Grasslands
    -dominated by grasses and herbs
  8. Deserts
    • -dry vegetation with bare ground
    • -26-35% of the Earth's land surface
  9. Wet tropical rainforest climate
    • -Mean temperature no less than 18C
    • -minimum monthly precipitation 60mm
  10. Hemiepiphyte
    • -starts to grow as epiphyte and then reaches the ground and forms roots
    • -Ex. Strangler fig
  11. Mangrove swamps
    • -support trees and occur in tropics
    • -Ex. Mangroves at Florida Bay
  12. Biodiversity "hot spots"
    • -regions with very high natural biodiversity 
    • -Ex. California
  13. Laterites
    highly leached tropical soils
  14. Tropical Seasonal forests
    • -Monsoon forests
    • -semievergreen
    • -partly deciduous forests
    • -heavy rainfall during summer and a distinct dry season during winter
  15. Savanna
    • -tropical grasslands and woodlands
    • -hot, seasonally dry 
    • -scattered trees
  16. Adaptations to the savana environment
    • 1. Xlopodia
    • -woody underground organs
    • 2. Thick bark
    • 3. Sclerophylls
    • -tough leathery leaves
  17. Desertification
    • land degradation in arid regions
    • -Ex. Mali
  18. Bactrian camel
    • -asia
    • -two humps
    • -grows a thick coat of hair each winter. That coat of hair falls off every spring.
  19. Dromedary camel
    • -Arab peninsula
    • -single hump
    • -double row of eyelashes and close nostrils, prevent sand from getting in
  20. Salinization
    the precipitation of soluble salts within the soil
  21. Mediterranean Biome
    • -dry summer
    • -subtropical climate
    • -the coldest month temperature is between 0 and 18C
  22. Holoparasite
    • -non-photosynthetic plant that gets everything from a host plant 
    • -Ex. Hyobanche sanguinea
  23. Grasslands
    dominated by grasses and forbs
  24. Prairie
    -characterized by tall grasses
  25. steppe
    • characterized by short grasses and bunchgrasses
    • -no trees
  26. Drought
    • -a period when a region lacks its water supply
    • -a characteristic feature of temperate grassland climates
  27. Temperate forests
    • -four seasons, there is winter
    • -precipitation all year round(no dry season)
  28. Dormancy 
    • -when chlorophyll is destroyed, leaves turn yellow or red
    • -plants harden for winter
    • -plant growth is slowed 
  29. Temperate rainforest- American Pacific
    • -coast redwoods:tallest tree
    • -the largest 
    • -high amount of rainfall 
  30. Conifers
    • -trees that grow cones
    • -leaves are needle-shaped
    • -most are evergreen
    • -Ex. Sugar pine
  31. Bristle cone Pine
    -the oldest living tree species
  32. Tundra
    • -high latitude/altitude treeless biome
    • -coldest of all biomes
    • -no trees
  33. Permafrost 
    • permanently frozen ground
    • -occurs in high mountain regions

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