Western Civilization Notes (2/1)-(2/11)
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Western Civilization Notes (2/1)-(2/11)
Second section of Western Civ. Notes prior to Exam 1
What are the four main things the Greeks valued?
Arete, Self-Sufficency, Individualism, and Civic Virtue.
what is the meaning of arete?
arete means reaching excellence or greatest value.
what is the meaning of Hubris?
Hubris means pride and is the counter point of arete.
what does arete mean being true to?
being true to ones self and abilities.
what is the meaning of self-sufficency?
being able to live on one's own and being working hard to earn one's place.
what is the meaning of individualism?
doing things on one's own and knowing strengths and weaknesses.
what is the meaning of civic virtue?
deals more with the well being of the state rather than the individual, so it is a duty to one's state.
what is linear A?
written language used by the Minoans
what type of Government did the Mycenaeans have?
they had Monarchial Governments
what is linear B?
written language used by the Mycenaeans
what period did the greek dark age occur?
what is an epic?
long poetry usually heroic, and usually involves kings and Gods
what is a famous Epic by homer?
The Ilyiad and Odyssey
what is a famous epic written by Hesiod?
Theogony and On Work and Days
what is a Polis?
A city state
what is an acropolis?
the high point of a city state, usually fortified
what is an agora?
the chief marketplace of Athens, and the center of the citys civic life
what is a hoplite?
a heavily armed foot soldier of Greece.
what were the five main governing structures of the Polis?
Tyranny, Democracy, Oligarchy, Federalism, and Monarchy
what is a tyranny?
Form of Government under one absolute ruler who is usually oppressive.
what is a democracy?
Comes from Greek word Demos (people), means ruled by the people
What is an Oligarchy?
it means it is ruled by the few, usually aristocratic.
what is Federalism?
city states working together under one head state.
what is a Monarchy?
ruled by a king
what was important about overseas expansion?
-it led to increased prosperity through trade and growth of the population.
-Colonization began and a metropolis was formed
-Greek value and culture was spread out and their coins became much used so they became the prevailing culture of the mediterranean.
what was important about the Growth of Sparta?
-They had a Conquest over colonization which led to the Messenian wars.
what was the dates and periods of the first and second Messenian wars?
First Messenian War (735-715 BCE)
Second Messenian War (650-620 BCE0
what were the helots?
a member of the lowest class in ancient Laconia.
what was important about Spartan Political System?
There was new political, economic, and social organization. "Lycurgan Regiment"
how was the government of the spartan political system organized?
there were 2 kings, and it was an oligarchy and democracy based government.
what was important about their militarization?
it was under total government regulation and its first loyalty was to the state.
What were five key factors involving spartan life?
1. babies if thought to be weak were exposed (left out to die).
2.boys were sent off to military training at the age of 7.
3.Men were allowed to marry at the age of 20, but could not live at home only in the barracks.
4. at the age of 30 men could now stay at home with their familes but had to eat in the barracks.
5. women at the age of 7 were trained in household duties and also gymnastics (MMA)
what was a Draco?
Highest position holder in Athenian Government.
what was the Law Code?
Established to help reduce problems the athenians faced, not very successful.
why was Solon important?
he freed the debt of the athenians and gave the property back to the people.
what was the agrarian crisis?
it was a time of weak crops.
who was Cleisthenas?
the father of Democracy
what was athenian democracy like?
all men over the age of 30 had equal voting in government.
what were a few key points of the Persian Wars?
1. it was recorded by Herodotus
2. it included the battle of Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea
3. it resulted in a Greek Victory.