Pharmacology Test 1

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Mstasha702
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198429
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Pharmacology Test 1
Updated:
2013-02-06 17:00:08
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pharmacology
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  1. Noncompliance
    informed decision on the part of the patient not to adhere to or follow a therapeutic plan or suggestion
  2. Outcome criteria
    Descriptions of specific patient behaviors or responses that demonstrate meeting of or achievement of goals related to each nursing diagnosis
  3. Nursing process
    organizational framework for the practice of nursing
  4. compliance
    Implementation or fulfillment of a prescriber's or caregiver's prescribed course of treatment or therapeutic plan by a patient
  5. Goals
    Statements that are time specific and describe generally what is to be accomplished
  6. Medication error
    Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional
  7. Objective Data
    information available through the senses, such as what is seen, felt, heard, and smelled
  8. subjective data
    all spoken info shared by the patient
  9. Part 1 ND

    "dificient knowledge"
    This is the statement of the human response of the patient to illness, injury, medications, or significant change
  10. Part 2 ND

    "Related to lack of experience with medication regimen and second-grade reading level as an adult"
    This identifies factors related to a response
  11. Part 3 ND
    "As evidenced by inability to perform a return demonstration and inability to state adverse effects to report to the prescriber
    lists clues, cues, evidence, and/or data that support the nurse's claim
  12. Assessment
    data collected , reviewed and analyzed; diagnosis formulated .
  13. NANDA
    North American Nursing Diagnosis Association
  14. NANDA Does
    visibility of nursing's contribution to patient care,  develops, refines, and classifies information ,supports for the improvement of quality nursing care through evidence-based practice,  provides a working organization for the development of evidence-based nursing diagnoses
  15. Charting Donts
    • -record staffing problems
    • record peers conflicts
    • -mention incident report in charting
    • -say “by mistake,” “by accident,” “accidentally,” “unintentional,” or “miscalculated
    • -anything other than facts
    • chart casual convo with peers
    • -use negative languaga
  16. Prescriber
    health care professional licensed to prescribe medications
  17. additive effects
    effects with combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects
  18. Adverse drug event
    undesirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a med
  19. adverse drug reaction
    unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication
  20. adverse effects
     any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs
  21. Agonist
     binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
  22. allergic reaction
    immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity to a medication
  23. antagonist (inhibitor)
    A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body
  24. Antagonistic effects
    the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual
  25. Bioavailability
    measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (0 to 100%)
  26. Biotransformation (metabolism)
    One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug  (LIVER)
  27. Blood brain barrier
    barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities between blood  and CNS; allows O2 to pass
  28. Chemical name
    name that describes chemical composition and molecuklar structure
  29. Contraindiction
    condtion that rnders a particular form of treatment(against it)
  30. Cytochrome P-450
    large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism
  31. dependence
    state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need of drugs
  32. Dissolution
    solid drugs disentigrate in gi tract, soluble then absorbed in  circulation
  33. Drug
    chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism
  34. drug actions
    cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells
  35. Drug effects
     physiologic reactions of the body to a drug
  36. Drug-induced teratogenesis
    development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs
  37. Drug interaction
    Alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs
  38. Duration of action
    length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response
  39. Enzymes
    Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions
  40. First Pass effect
    The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
  41. Generic name (non proprietary)
     name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council
  42. Half Life
    time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body
  43. Idiosyncratic reaction
     abnormal and unexpected response to a medication ; peculiar to an individual patient
  44. Incompatibility
    two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed
  45. Intraarticular
    Within a joint
  46. Intrathecal (theca in spinal cord )
    within a sheath
  47. Medication use process
    prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications and monitor effects
  48. Metabolite
     A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug ; active= pharmacologic activity , inactive = no  pharmacologic activity  
  49. onset of action
    Time required for drug to elicit response
  50. parent drug
    chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body's biochem rxn
  51. peak effect
    time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response

    "HIGHEST BLOOD LEVEL "
  52. peak level
    maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration (measured in blood sample)
  53. Pharmaceutics
    • science of preparing and dispensing drugs
    • * disentigrates then dissolution
  54. pharmacodynamics
    study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity
  55. pharmacoginetics
    study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response
  56. pharmacognosy
    study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources
  57. pharmacokinetics
    rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body (absorption distribution metabolism excretion)
  58. Drug absorption
    liquuids faster then enteric caps slower
  59. Pharmacology
    study or science of drugs
  60. pharmacotherapeutics
    txt of pathologic condition thru drugs
  61. prodrug
    an inactive drug dosage form
  62. Receptor
    molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell
  63. steady state (equal)
     physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed
  64. Substrates
    Substances (e.g., drugs or natural biochemicals in the body) on which an enzyme acts
  65. Synergistic effects
    effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects
  66. Therapeutic drug monitoring
    measuring drug peak and trough levels, level of drug exposure
  67. therapeutic effect
    desired or intended effect of a particular medication

    ***A drug cannot make a cell or tissue perform a function it was not designed to perform***
  68. therapeutic index
    ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
  69. tolerance
    Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
  70. Toxic
    quality of being poisonous
  71. toxicity
    condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
  72. toxicology
    study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and applicable treatments
  73. Trade name
    commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer
  74. trough level
    lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level

    "LOWEST BLOOD LEVEL"
  75. Pharmaceutical phase 1
    disentigration and dissolution
  76. Pharmaceutical phase 2
    absorption ,distribution and metabolism , excretion
  77. pharmaceutical phase 3
    drug receptor interaction
  78. Three basic areas of pharmacology
    pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
  79. Routes
    Enternal, parenternal, topical
  80. Enternal route
    Tablets, capsules, pills, timed-release capsules, timed-release tablets, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, emulsions, solutions, lozenges or troches, rectal suppositories, sublingual or buccal tablets 

    **absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream
  81. Parenternal Route
    Injectable forms, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders for reconstitution

    *absorbed over a period of several hours;  IV rapid onset
  82. Topical Route
    Aerosols, ointments, creams, pastes, powders, solutions, foams, gels, transdermal patches, inhalers, rectal and vaginal suppositories
  83. Absorption
    movement of a drug from site of administration into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues
  84. First pass routes
    Hepatic arterial , Oral,  Portal venous and Rectal

    Non -first pass (all intra-drugs, inhaled, sub drugs )
  85. enzyme IA2
    acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline, warfarin
  86. Enzyme 2C9
     ibuprofen, phenytoin
  87. enzyme 2C19
    diazepam, naproxen, omeprazole, propranolol
  88. 2D9
    codeine, fluoxetine, hydrocodone, metoprolol, oxycodone
  89. 2E1
    acetaminophen, ethanol
  90. 3A4
    acetaminophen, amiodarone, cyclosporine, diltiazem, ethinyl estradiol, indinavir, lidocaine
  91. active transport
    active energy-required  movment
  92. Diffusion
    passive movement of a substance; from high to low concentration
  93. elderly
    person over 65:

    • *13% of the total population
    • *recieve 30% of all prescription med
    • *40% of all OTC drugs
  94. neonate
    younger than 1 month of age
  95. Nomogram
     tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurements
  96. pediatric
    12 yrs old or younger
  97. Polypharmacy
     use of many different drugs concurrently in treating a patient

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