chapt 4

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  1. glycocalyx
    capsule around molecule maybe slim/loose or capsule tight
  2. bacterial chromosome/nucleiod
    inside composed of condensed dna molecule and genectic material for the cell 
  3. plasmid
    double stranded DNA circles containing xtra genes
  4. pilus
    a elongate, hollow appendage used in transfers of DNA to other cells (mating)
  5. ribosomes
    tiny particles composed of protien and RNA that are the sites  of protien synthesis
  6. actin cytoskeleton
    long fibers of proteins that encircle the cell just inside the cell membrane and contribute to the shape of the cell
  7. flagellum
    specialized appendages attached to the cell by a basal body that holds a long rotating filament . the movement pushes the cell forward and provides motility
  8. fimbriae
    fine hairlike bristle extending from the cell surface that help in adhesions to other cells and surfaces (attachement )
  9. inclusions/granuole
    stored nutrients such as fat, glycogen desposited in dense crystals or particles that can be tapped into
  10. cell wall
    a semi rigid casing that provides structure and support the shape for the cell
  11. cell memebrane
    a thin sheet of lipid  and protein that surrounds the cytoplasm and controls the flow of material into and out of the cell pool
  12. outer membrane
    • extra memebrane similar to cell membrane  also contains lipopoy saccaride.
    • controls flow of materialand portoions of it
  13. endospores
    dormant bodies formed within some bacteria that allows for their survial in adverse conditions
  14. cytoplasm
    water based system that fills the entire cell
  15. flagella parts
    filament , hook, basal body
  16. monotrichous
    single flagellum
  17. lophotrichous
    small bunches from the same site
  18. amphitrichous
    flagella at bothy poles
  19. peritrichous
    flagella disperedrandomly around the cell
  20. chemotaxis-
    movement  positive-toward negative - aways
  21. phototaxis
    toward sunlight
  22. slime layer
    a loose sheild that protects some bacteria from loss of nutrients and water inportant in the formation of biofilms
  23. capsule
    a tightly bound gylcocalyx makes te cell wall thicker and denser protects against englufment by phagocytes
  24. gram postive
    • has two layers 
    • cell walls and cell membranec
  25. gram negative
    • three layers
    • outer memebrance
    • cell wall
    • cell membrane
  26. peptidoglycan
    consists of glycan chains cross linked by short peptide fragments provides support
  27. ribosomes
    • made of rna characterized by s unitis
    • prokaryotic ribosome is 70S
  28. endospore forming bacteria
    • have to phase cycles
    • 1st vegatative cell activily growing
    • 2nd endospore formation
    • vegative cell undergoes a conversion to sporagium-sporagium to endospore
    • hardest of all life forms
  29. sporulation
    depletion of nutrients
  30. coccus
    roughly sperical
  31. bacillus
    rod shaped
  32. vibrio
    gently curved
  33. spirllium
    curviform or spirah shaped
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chapt 4
2013-02-06 20:42:22

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