Anatomy 2 Exam 1

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Anatomy 2 Exam 1
2013-02-06 15:59:10

anatomy 2
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  1. Blood is a specialized ________ tissue
  2. The living cells of blood are called
    formed elements
  3. The nonliving fluid matrix of blood is called
    blood plasma
  4. Blood that has been centrifuged separates into three layers:
    • erythrocytes
    • the buffy coat
    • plasma
  5. The blood _______ represents the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood
  6. The pH of blood is between _____ and _____
  7. Blood density and viscosity is _____ than water due to the presence of formed elements
  8. Normal blood volume in males=
    Normal blood volume in females=
    • 5-6 liters
    • 4-5 liters
  9. Blood delivers _____ and ______, removes __________ to elimination sites, and distributes _________
    • oxygen and nutrients
    • metabolic wastes
    • hormones
  10. Blood aids in regulating body ______, body fluid _____, and fluid volume within fluid compartments
    • temperature
    • pH
  11. Blood protects against excessive blood loss through the ___________
    clotting mechanism
  12. Blood plasma consists of _____ water, and solutes including:

    • nutrients
    • gases
    • hormones
    • wastes
    • products of cell activity
    • ions
    • protiens
  13. Plasma proteins account for _____ of plasma solutes, mostly _____, which function as carriers. 
    • 8%
    • albumin
  14. Most plasma proteins are produced in the ________
  15. Plasma proteins:  
    • Albumins
    • Globulins: antibodies, hormone binding (transthyretin and steroid binding), Metalloproteins (Transferrin), lipoprotiens 
    • Fibrinogen
    • Hormones
  16. Erythrocytes are ________
    red blood cells
  17. Red blood cells are small and _______ in shape. 
  18. Red blood cells lack ___ and most organelles, and contain mostly ________
    • nuclei
    • hemoglobin
  19. _________ is an oxygen-binding pigment that is responsible for the transport of most of the oxygen in the blood
  20. Hemoglobin is made up of the protein _____ bound to the red heme pigment
  21. __________, or blood cell formation, occurs in the red bone marrow
  22. ___________ is the formation of erythrocytes
  23. Erythropoiesis begins when a ________ stem cell is transformed to a ___________, which develops to mature erythrocytes 
    • myeloid
    • proerythroblast 
  24. Erythrocyte production is controlled by the hormone ________
  25. Dietary requirements for erythrocyte formation include:
    • iron
    • vitamin B12
    • folic acid
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • carbs
  26. Blood cells have a short life span due to the lack of _______ and __________
    • nuclei
    • organelles
  27. Destruction of dead or dying blood cells is accomplished by _________
  28. _____ are characterized by a deficiency in RBCs
  29. ____________ is characterized by an abnormal excess of RBCs
  30. ___________ of whole blood is routine when blood loss is substantial
  31. Humans have different blood types based on specific _______ on RBC membranes
  32. ____ blood groups are based on the presence or absence of the three antigens
  33. The _________ is a group of RBC antigens that are either present in Rh+ blood, or absent in Rh- blood
    Rh factor 
  34. A ________ reaction occurs if the infused donor blood type is attacked by the recipient's blood plasma antibodies, resulting in ________ and _________ of the donor cells
    • transfusion 
    • aggulation 
    • hemolysis
  35. __________, or white blood cells, are the only formed elements that are complete cells and make up less than 1% of total blood volume
  36. ___________ are a main group of leukocytes characterized as large cells with lobbed nuclei and visibly staining granules; all are phagocytic
  37. ________ are the most numerous type of leukocyte. They are chemically attracted to sites of inflammation and are active phagocytic
  38. ________ are relatively uncommon and attack parasitic worms
  39. ________ are the least numerous leukocyte and release histamine to promote inflammation
  40. _______ are a main group of lymphocytes that lack visibly staining granules
  41. _____________ directly attack viral-infected and tumor cells
    T lymphocytes
  42. __________ produce antibody cells
    B lymphocytes
  43. Monocytes become _________ and activate T lymphocytes
  44. _____________, the formation of white blood cells, is regulated by the production of _____________ and ___________________
    • Leukopoiesis
    • interleukins
    • colony-stimulating factors (CSF)
  45. Leukopoiesis involves differentiation of _______________ along two pathways; lymphoid and myeloid stem cells 
  46. __________ is an abnormally low white blood cell count
  47. __________ are clones of a single white blood cell that remain unspecialized and divide out of control
  48. _____________ ______________ is a disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
    Infectious mononucleosis
  49. Platelets are not complete cells, but fragments of large cells called ___________
  50. Platelets are critical to the _____________, forming the temporary seal when a blood vessel breaks
    clotting process
  51. Formation of platelets involves mitosis of __________ without cytokinesis
  52. A break in a blood vessel stimulates hemostasis which is 
    a fast, localized response to reduce blood loss through clotting
  53. __________ are the immediate vasoconstriction response to blood vessel injury
    Vascular spasms
  54. What is the process of Platelet Plug Formation
    • 1. When endothelium is damaged, platelets become sticky and spiky, adhering to each other and the damaged vessel wall. 
    • 2. Once attached, other platelets are attracted to the site of injury, activating a positive feedback loop for clot formation
  55. ________, or blood clotting, is a multistep process in which blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel
  56. Factors that promote clotting are called clotting factors, or ________
  57. Factors that inhibit clot formation are called 
  58. The clotting process involves:
    • Formation of prothrombin activator
    • Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    • The formation of fibrin mesh from fibrinogen in the plasma
  59. ___________ is a process in which the contractile proteins within platelets contract and pull on neighboring fibrin strands, squeezing plasma from the clot and pulling damaged tissue edges together
    Clot retraction
  60. Repair is stimulated by 
    platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
  61. ______ removes unneeded clots through the action of the fibrin-digesting enzyme plasmin