History 1302 Ch 20

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History 1302 Ch 20
2013-02-13 16:35:11

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  1. Waving the bloody shirt
  2. James A. Garfield
    Union army hero and longtime member of Congress, succeeded Hayes. Determined to unite the Republican party (which had been split by personality differences and disagreement over policy toward the tariff and the South), lower the tariff to cut taxes, and assert American economic and strategic interests in Latin America. Ambitious and eloquent. Garfield planned to leave Washington on July 2, 1881, for a vacation in New England. Walking toward his train, he was shot in the back by Charles J. Guiteau, a deranged lawyer and disappointed office seeker. Suffering through the summer, Garfield died on September 19, 1881, and Vice President Chester A. Arthur an ally of Senator Conkling became president.
  3. Blan- Allison Silver Purchase Act
  4. Pendleton Act
    This 1883 law created a bipartisan Civil Service Commission to administer competitive exams for civil service jobs and appoint officeholders based on merit. It also outlawed compulsory political contributions from appointed officials. p. 470
  5. Williams v. Mississipp
    In 1890, Mississippi required voters to be able to read and interpret the federal Constitution to the satisfaction of registration officials, all of them white. Such literacy tests, which the Supreme Court upheld in the case of Williams v. Mississippi (1898), excluded poor white voters as well as blacks.
  6. Munn  V. Illinois
    In 1877 the Supreme Court upheld the Illinois legislation, declaring that private property “affected with the public interest must submit to being controlled by the public for the common good.”
  7. Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway v. Illinois
    Narrowed the Munn ruling and held that states could not regulate commerce extending beyond their borders. Only Congress could. The Wabash decision turned people’s attention back to the federal govern-ment. It spurred Congress to pass the Interstate Commerce Act (1887),
  8. Interstate Commerce Act
    1) Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway v. Illinois case spurred congress to create th ICA.

    2) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to investi-gate and oversee railroad activities. The act outlawed rebates and pooling agreements, and the ICC became the prototype of the fed-eral commissions that today regulate many parts of the economy.
  9. McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
    Congress during 1890. The Republicans passed the McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariff duties about 4 percent, higher than ever before; it also included a novel reciprocity provision that allowed the president to lower duties if other countries did the same. In addition, the act used duties to promote new industries, such as tinplate for packaging the new “canned” foods appear-ing on grocery store shelves.
  10. Sherman Anti- Trust Act
    1st federal attempt to regulate big business,As the initial attempt to deal with the problem of trusts and industrial growth, the act shaped all later antitrust policy. It declared illegal “every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce.”
  11. United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
  12. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
    tried to end the troublesome problem presented by silver.The act directed the Treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver a month and to issue legal tender in the form of Treasury notes in payment for it. The act was a compromise; it satisfied both sides. Opponents of silver were pleased that it did not include free coinage. Silverites, on the other hand, were delighted that the monthly purchases would buy up most of the country’s silver pro-duction. The Treasury notes, moreover, could be cashed for either gold or silver at the bank, a gesture toward a true bimetallic system based on silver and gold. 
  13. Farmers Alliance
    Started out as a group of people during the summer of 1890, wagonloads of farm families in the South and West converged on campgrounds and picnic areas to socialize and dind discuss common problems. They came by the thousands, weary of drought, mortgages, and low crop prices. At the camp-grounds, they picnicked, talked, and listened to recruiters from an organization called the National Farmers’ Alliance and Industrial Union , which promised unified action to solve agri-cultural problems. Then I grew into other farmer alliance sub groups
  14. Ocale Demands
    First and foremost, the demands called for the creation of a “sub-treasury system,” which would allow farmers to store their crops in government warehouses. In return, they could claim Treasury notes for up to 80 percent of the local market value of the crop, a loan to be repaid when the crops were sold. Farmers could thus hold their crops for the best price. The Ocala Demands also urged the free coinage of silver, an end to protective tariffs and national banks, a federal income tax, the direct election of senators by voters instead of state legislatures, and tighter regulation of railroad companies.
  15. Coxey's Army
  16. Pullman Strike of 1894
  17. Pullman Strike of 1894
  18. Eugene V. Debs
  19. In re Debs
  20. Populist Party
  21. Grover Cleveland
    Became President in the election of 1884, after defeating Republican nominee, James G. Blaine. Was the Democratic governor of New York, The first Democratic president since 1861, Cleveland was slow and ponderous, known for his honesty, stub-bornness, and hard work. His term in the White House from 1885 to 1889 reflected the Democratic party’s desire to curtail federal activities. Cleveland vetoed more than two-thirds of the bills presented to him, more than all his predecessors combined. Forthright and sincere, he brought a new respectability to a Democratic party still tainted by its link with secession. Working long into the night, he reviewed veterans’ pensions and civil service appointments. Continued Arthur’s naval construction program and forced railroad, lumber, and cattle companies to surrender millions of acres of fraudulently occupied public domain. Late in 1887, attacked tariff, committed himself and the Democratic party to lowering the tariff. Republicans accused him of undermining American industries, and in 1888, they nominated for the presidency Benjamin Harrison, a defender of the tariff who defeated him
  22. Gold Standard Act
  23. Panic of 1893
  24. William Jennings Bryan
  25. Cross Of Gold