Anatomy 2 Exam 1

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Anatomy 2 Exam 1
2013-02-06 17:10:50

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  1. _________ are ductless glands that produce and release hormones to the blood through diffusion
    Endocrine glands
  2. Endocrine glands may be strictly endocrine, such as _____, ______, ________, ________, ______, and ________; or they may be organs that have hormone production as one of many functions such as the _______, ________, _________
    pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus

    pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus
  3. ________ are long-distance chemical signals that are secreted by the cells to the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic functions of other cells
  4. Most hormones are ___________ based, but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are _____, derived from cholesterol 
    • amino acid based
    • steroids
  5. Hormones typically 
    • 1. Produce changes in membrane permeability or potential
    • 2. Stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules
    • 3. Activate or deactivate enzymes
    • 4. Induces secretory activity
    • 5. Stimulate mitosis
  6. Nearly all amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through an ____________ ______________ _________ that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor
    intracellular second messenger
  7. __________ are lipid soluble and diffuse into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific target sequences of DNA
    Steroid hormones
  8. Cells must have _____ ________ or _____ _________ to which hormones can bind
    • intracellular receptors
    • specific membrane
  9. Target cell response depends on three factors
    • Blood levels of the hormone
    • Relative numbers of target cell receptors
    • Affinity of the receptor for the hormone
  10. __________ can change their sensitivity to a hormone by changing the number of receptors
    Target cells
  11. The concentration of a hormone reflects its
    • rate of release
    • the rate of inactivation and removal from the body
  12. The ________ of a hormone is the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood, and is shortest for water-soluble hormones
  13. Target organ response and duration of response __________ among hormones
    vary widely
  14. ______________ occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present
  15. _______ occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified
  16. ___________ occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone 
  17. Most hormone synthesis and release is regulated through
    negative feedback mechanisms
  18. Endocrine gland stimuli may be 
    • humoral
    • neural
    • hormonal
  19. ______________ allows hormone secretion to be modified by the nervous stimulation in response to changing body needs
    Nervous system modulation
  20. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the __________ and consists of two lobes:

    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
  21. There are six adenohypophyseal hormones and one prohormone
    • a. Growth hormone
    • b. Thyroid hormone
    • c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • d. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • e. Leutinizing hormone
    • f. Prolactin
  22. ______ stimulates body cells to increase in size divide
    Growth hormone (GH)
  23. ___________ is a tropic hormone that stimulates normal development and secretion of the thyroid gland
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  24. __________ stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones
    Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
  25. ___________ stimulates gamete production 
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  26. _____________ promotes ovulation in females and production of gonadal hormones
    Leutinizing hormone (LH)
  27. ________ stimulates milk production in females and may enhance testosterone in males
  28. Two neurohormones synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary are 
    • Oxytocin
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  29. _______ acts on the smooth muscle of the uterus and breast to cause uterine contractions during childbirth and milk let-down during nursing
  30. _________ acts on kidney tubules to promote increased water reabsorption
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  31. The thyroid gland consists of hollow follicles with follicle cells that produce __________, and ____________ that produce calcitonin
    • Thyroglobulin
    • Parafollicular
  32. Thyroid hormone consists of two amine hormones: ________ and _________ that act on all body cells to increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production
    • Thyroxine (T4)
    • Triiodothyronine (t3)
  33. ________ is a peptide hormone that lowers blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclast activity, and stimulates Ca21 uptake and incorporation into the bone matrix
  34. The ___________ contain chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone, or parathormone
    parathyroid gland
  35. The __________, or suprarenal glands, consists of two regions:
    adrenal glands

    • An inner adrenal medulla 
    • An outer adrenal cortex
  36. The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids from there distinct regions
    • 1. Zona glomerulosa 
    • 2. Zona fasciculata
    • 3. Zona reticularis
  37. ____________, mostly aldosterone, are essential to regulation of electrolyte concentrations of extracellular fluids
  38. __________ is regulated by the renin-angiotensin mechanism, fluctuating blood concentrations of sodium and possum ions, and secretion of ACTH
    Aldosterone secretion
  39. ___________ are released in response to stress through the action of ACTH
  40. _____________ are mostly weak androgens, which are converted to testosterone and estrogens in the tissue cells
  41. THe adrenal medulla contains ___________ cells that synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine 
  42. The ____________ is a mixed gland that contains both endocrine and exocrine gland cells
  43. _______ targets the liver where it promotes glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood
  44. ______ lowers blood sugar levels by enhancing membrane transport of glucose into body cells
  45. The _______ produce estrogens and progesterone
  46. The _____ produce testosterone
  47. The Pineal Gland:
    • 1. Secretes melatonin, a hormone derived from serotonin in a diurnal cycle 
    • 2. Indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine the timing of day and night
  48. The thymus produces _________, __________, and ___________, which are essential for the development of T lymphocytes and the immune response 
    • Thymopoietin
    • Thymic factor
    • Thymosin
  49. THe ____________ contain specialized cells that secrete atrial natriuretic factor resulting in decreased blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration
    atria of the heart
  50. The _____________ contains enteroendocrine cells throughout the mucosa that secrete hormones to regulate digestive functions
    gastrointestinal tract
  51. The _____________ secretes estrogens, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin, which act on the uterus to influence pregnancy
  52. The _____ produce erythropoietin, which signals the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
  53. THe _____ produces cholecalciferol, an inactive form of vitamin D3
  54. _________ produces leptin, which acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety, and resisting, an insulin antagonist