Anatomy Chapter 6

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Anatomy Chapter 6
2013-02-06 20:20:06
Chapter skeleton

Skeletal System
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  1. Phlanges
    The bones that make up the fingers and toes
  2. Femur
    The thigh bone, which is the longest bone in the body.
  3. Fontanel
    • "soft spots" on the infant's head;
    • unossified areas in the infant skull
  4. Fibula
    the slender non-weight bearing bone located on the lateral aspect of the leg
  5. Flex, flexation
    The act of bending, decreasing the angle between two bones at the joint
  6. extend
    increasing the angle between two bones at a joint
  7. Diarthrosis
    freely moving joint
  8. calcaneous
    • Heel bone;
    • largest tarsal in the foot
  9. Chest
  10. Circumduct
    The process of moving the distal end of a body part in a circular path
  11. Cranium
    Bony Vault made up of eight bones that encase the brain
  12. Cruciate Ligament
    • Either of two crossed ligaments inside the knee joint cavity that connect the tibia to the femur;
    • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
    • Posterior Cruciate Ligamnet (PCL)
  13. Carpal Bones
    Bones in the wrist
  14. Bursa
    Small, cusion-like sac found alongside joints, cushioning moving bones
  15. Amphiarthrosis
    Slightly movable joint such as the joint joining the two pubic bones
  16. ilium
    One of the three separate bones that forms the os coxa
  17. Ligament
    Bond or band connection two objects; in anatomy a bond of white fibrous tissue connecting bones
  18. Lateral Longitudinal Arch
    2 arches that extend lengthwise in the foot
  19. lacuna
    Space or cavity; for example lacunae in bone contain bone cells
  20. Medial Longitudinal Arch
    2 arches that extend lengthwise in the foot
  21. Metacarpals
    the part of the hand between the wrist and fingers
  22. Metatarsals
    part of the foot between the ankle and toes
  23. Middle ear
    a tiny and very thin epithelium-lined cavity in the temporal bone that houses the ossicles; in the middle ear, sound waves are amplified
  24. Meniscus
    articular cartilage disk
  25. Osteoclast
    Bone-absorbing cell
  26. Osteoporosis
    a bone disease in which there is an excessive loss of calcified matrix and collagenous fibers from bone
  27. Osteoblast
    Bone-forming cell
  28. Olecranon fossa
    A largedepression on the posterior surface of the humerus
  29. Olecranon Process
    the large bony process of the ulna; commonly referred to as the tip of the elbow
  30. Paranasal Sinus
    four pairs of sinuses that have openings into the nose
  31. Pelvic Girdle
    Connects the legs to the trunk; hip bones
  32. Pelvis
    Basin or funnel shaped structure
  33. pubis
    joint in the midline between the two pubic bones
  34. Patella
    Small, shallow pan; the knee cap
  35. Radius
    One of the two bones in the forearm; located on the thumb side of the forearm
  36. rotation
    Movement around a longitudinal axis, for example shaking your head "no"
  37. Sinus
    a space or cavity inside some of the cranial bones
  38. Sternoclavicular Joint
    the direct point of attachment between the bones of the upper extremity and the axial skeleton
  39. suture
    immovable joint
  40. Synarthrosis
    a joint in which fibrous connective tissue joins bones and holds them together tightly; commonly called suture
  41. Synovial Membrane
    Connective tissue mombrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secretes synovial fluid
  42. Tarsal Bones
    Seven bones of the heel and back part of the foot; the calcaneus is the largest
  43. Tibia
  44. Thorax
  45. ulna
    one of the two forearm bones; located on the liitle finger side
  46. Vertebrae
    bone that makes up the spinal column
  47. Yellow Bone Marrow
    fatty tissue inside the medullary cavity of a long bone
  48. Transverse (Metatarsal) Arch
    the arch that extends across the ball of the foot
  49. Pectoral Girdle
  50. Palpable
    Bony landmarks that can be touched
  51. Calcitonin
    Secreation from the thyroid gland and increases mineralization of bone and thus reduces blood calcium to keep the balance of calcium deposits and withdraws.
  52. Articulations
  53. Scapula
    • Shoulder blades:
    • scapula plus clavicle forms pectoral
    • acromen process-tip of shoulder that forms joint with clavicle
    • glenoid cavity- arm socket
  54. Coxal Bone
    • 2    Lower Extremities
    • Hip bone:
    • ilium- upper flaring part of pelvic bone
    • ischium- lower back part
    • pubic bone-lower front part
    • acetabulum- hip socket
    • symphysis pubis- cartilaginous joint in midline between two pubic bones
    • pelvic inlet- opening into true pelvis or pelvic cavity

    If pelvic inlet is misshapen or too small, infant skull cannot enter true pelvis for natural birth
  55. Ethmoid
    • 1    Skull    Cranial
    • Uniquely shaped bone that helps form floor of cranium
    • side walls roof of nose and part of its middle portion (nasal septum-made up of the vomer bone and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone) and part of orbit.
    • Contains honeycomb-like spaces, the ethmoid sinuses; superior and middle conchae and projections of ethmoid bone that form "ledges" along side walls of the nasal cavity
  56. Sphenoid
    • 1   Skull   Cranial
    • Forms central part of floor of cranium;  pituitary gland located in small depression in sphenoid called sella turcia (Turkish Saddle); muscles attach to pterygoid process
  57. Occipital
    • 1   Skull   Cranial
    • Forms back of skull; spinal cord enters cranium through large hole (foramen magnum) in occipital bone
  58. Temporal
    • 2   Skull    Cranial
    • Form lower sides of cranium; contain middle and inner ear structures; mastoid sinuses are mucosa-lined spaces in mastoid process, the protuberance behind ear; external auditory canal is tube leading into temporal bone; muscles attach to styloid process
  59. Parietal
    • Skull    Cranial
    • Parietal 2 Form bulging topsides of cranium
  60. Frontal Bone
    • 1    skull    Cranial
    • Forehead bone; also forms front part of floor of cranium and most of upper part of eye sockets; cavity inside bone above upper margins of eye sockets (orbits) called frontal sinus; lined with mucous membrane
  61. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Bones of the upper and lower extremities
    • Includes:
    •   Shoulder, pectoral girdles, arms, wrists, and hands, hip, pelvic girdles, legs, ankles, and feet
  62. Axial Skeleton
    • Bones of the center of the body.
    • Including:
    •    Skull, spine, and chest, and the hyoid bone in the neck
  63. Epiphyseal Plate
    Cartilage that remains between the epiphyses and diaphysis.  As long as this is still present, bones are still growing.
  64. Endochondral Ossification
    The process of bones being formed from cartilage models

    Term means "formed in cartilage"
  65. Chondrocytes
    Cartilage cells that are located in lacunae.
  66. Cartilage
    • Consists more of intercellular substance than of cells.  Innumerable collagenous fibers reinforce the matrix of both tissues.
    • In cartilage the fibers are embeded in a firm gel instead of in a calcified cement substance.
  67. Canaliculi
    Connects the lacunae with one another and with the central canal in each osteon
  68. Osteocytes
    Living mature bone cells that lie between the hard layers of the lamella in little spaces called lacunae.
  69. Concentric Lamella
    Circular rings (or lamella) surround the central canal, which contains a blood vessel.
  70. Osteons
    Numerous structural units called osteons that are in compact bone.  Each circular and tubelike osteon is composed of calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers that resemble the rings of an onion.
  71. Trabeculae
    Needle-like threads of spongy bone that surrounds the network of spaces
  72. Spongy Bone
    (Cancellous Bone)
    The porous bone in the end of the long bone
  73. Compact Bone
    The outer layer of bone that is hard and dense.  Appears solid to the naked eye
  74. Diploe
    • Flat Bone
    • The spongy bone layer of the flat bone.
  75. Endosteum
    a thin membrane that linnes the medullary cavity
  76. Periosteum
    A strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at the joint surfaces, where it is covered by articular cartilage.
  77. Epiphysis
    • Long Bone
    • The ends of the bone-red bone marrow fills in small spaces in the spongy bone composing the epiphysis
  78. Articular Cartilage
    A think layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis; functions like a small rubber cusion would if it were placed over the ends of bones where they form a joint
  79. Medullary Cavity
    The hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone; contains soft yellow bone marrow, an inactive fatty form of marrow found in the adult skeleton
  80. Diaphysis
    • Long Bones
    • The shaft-  a hollow tube made of hard, compact bone, hence a rigid and strong structure light enough in weight to permit easy movement.
  81. Reb Bone Marrow
    Where red blood cell formation occurs
  82. Hematopoiesis
    The process of blood cell formation
  83. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
    Secretion from the parathyroid glands and counterbalances the effects of calcitonin by decreasing the calcium in the bone and thur increasing blood calcium
  84. Humerus
    • 2   Upper Extremities
    • Arm bone (Muscles are attached to the greater tubercle and to the medial and lateral epicondyles; the trochlea articulates with the ulna; the surgical neck is a common fracture site)
  85. Clavicle
    • 2   Upper Extremities
    • Collarbones; only joints between pectoral and axial skeleton are those between each clavicle and sternum.
    • (Sternoclavicular joints)
  86. Sternum
    • 1   Bones of the Thorax
    • Breastbone;
    • shaped like a dagger; peice of cartilage at lower end of bone called xiphoid process; superior portion called the manubrium
  87. False Ribs
    • 10   Bones of the Thorax
    • Lower five pairs;  first 3 pairs attached to sternum by costal cartilage of seventh ribs;  lowest two pairs do not attach to sternum, therefor called "floating ribs"
  88. True Ribs
    • 14   Bones of the Thorax
    • Upper seven pairs; attached to sternum by costal cartilages
  89. Coccyx
    • 1   Vertebral
    • In child:  3-5 separate vertebrae
    • In Adult: fused into one
  90. Sacrum
    • 1  Vertebral
    • In child:  5 separate vertebrae
    • In Adult:  fused into one
  91. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • 5 Vertebral
    • Third five vertebrae; located in the small of the back.
  92. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • 12   Vertebral
    • Next 12 vertebrae; ribs attach to these
  93. Cerv ical
    • 7 Vertebral
    • Upper seven vertebrae, in neck region; first cervical vertebrae callet atlas, second, axis
  94. Stapes
    skull ear bone

    Means "Stirrup"
  95. Incus
    • 2   skull   ear bone
    • Mean "anvil"
  96. Malleus
    • 2    skull    ear bone
    • Means "Hemmer"
  97. Vomer
    • 1   Skull   Face Bone
    • Forms lower, back part of nasal septum.
  98. Inferior Nasal Concha
    • 2 skull   face bones
    • Form curved "ledge" along inside of side wall of nose, below middle concha.
  99. Palatine
    • 2    Skull   Face Bone
    • Form back part of roof of mouth and floor and side walls of nose and part of floor of orbit
  100. Lacrimal
    • 2   skull    face bones
    • Small bones; help from medial wall of eye socket and side wall of nasal cavity
  101. Mandible
    • 1    Skull    Face Bones
    • Lower jawbone articulates with temporal bone at condyloid process; only bone of skull that moves freely; mental foramen is
  102. Zygomatic
    • 2   Skull    Face Bones
    • Cheek bones;  also help form orbits
  103. Maxilla
    • 2    Skull    Face Bones
    • Upper jawbones;  also help form roof of mouth, floor and side walls of nose and floor of orbit;  large cavity in maxillary bone is maxillary sinus
  104. Nasal
    • 2    skull    face bones
    • Small bones that form upper part of bridge of nose
  105. Acetabulum
    Socket in the hip bone into which the head of the femur fits
  106. Abduct, adduct
    • Abduct is to move away from the midlin of the body.
    • Adduct is to move toward the midline of the body
  107. ischium
    One of three separate bones that form the os coxa