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The Scientific Revolution
- Widespread 16th & 17th Centuries
- Slow, not rapid.
- Brilliant people suggesting wrong as well as useful ideas.
- Only involved a few hundred people.
- French mathematician & Physical scientist
- Surrendered his wealth to pursue an auster, self-disciplined life.
- He aspired to write a work that would refute both dogmatism and skepticism.
- He allied himself with the Jansenists, 17th century Catholic opponents of the Jesuits.
- (1596-1650) France
- Mathematician who invented analytic geometry
- He developed scientific method that relied more on deduction-reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts than empirical observation and induction.
- He published Discourse on Method
He divided existing things into two categories, Mind & Body.
- A lawyer, high royal official, and the author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses.
- Known as the Father of Empiricism and of experimentation in science.
- He wrote The advancement of Learning, Novum Organum, and The New Atlantis.
- "Men of experiment and men of dogmas"
- The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy better known as Principia Mathematica.
- Idea of Gravity.
- He believed in empricism.
- (1564-1642) Italy
- Created the telescope from a Dutch instrument.
- He wrote the Starry Messenger and Letters on Sunspots.
- (1571-1630) German
- Assistant to Tycho Brahe.
- He like the heliocentric model.
- He searched for data to show proof of a sun-centered universe.
- He came up with elliptical orbits.
- Her marriage to the duke of Newcastle introduced her into a circle of natural philosophers.
- Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
- Grounds of Natural Philosophy
- Only woman in 17th century allowed to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London.
- He proved to be the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the 17th century.
- Two Treatises on Government
- First, proved important by clearing philosophical decks.
- Second, presented an extended argument for a government that must necessarily be both responsible.
- History of the Peloponnesian War
- Humans are inclined to a "perpetual and restless desire"
- He thought rulers should be absolute and unlimited in their power.
Peter Paul Rubens
- (1577-1640) Flemish
- Roman Catholic artist was employed to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall at his palace in London with painting commemorating his father James I
- Leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation.
- (1546-1601) Danish
- He did not embrace Copernicus's view of the universe and actually spent most of his life advocating an earth-centered system.
- He suggested Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun, but that the moon, sun, and other plants revolved around earth.
- (1473-1543) Polish
- Polish priest and an astronomer
- On the year of his death he published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, which has been described as "a revolution-making rather than a revolutionary text."
- His literary work challenged the Ptolemaic system.
- 17th Century
- Art historians use this term to denote the style associated with 17th century painting, sculpture, and architecture.
- The work of these artists served both religious and secular ends.
- They often portrayed scenes from the Bible and from the lives of saints intended to instruct the observer in religious truths.
- 1400-1700 Western Land
- Courts sentenced an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 people to death for harmful magic, and diabolical witchcraft.
- Witches were said to attend mass meeting known as sabbats, to which they were believed to fly.