Kinship Systems

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Author:
gandalfthegrey
ID:
198539
Filename:
Kinship Systems
Updated:
2013-02-06 23:51:37
Tags:
Cultural Anthropology
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Description:
Final Review
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  1. What does kinship do?
  2. Kinship is important in transmitting/determining... (2 each)
    • transmitting status to next generation
    • transmitting property to next generation
    • determining how family ties are established in marriage
    • determining how family ties are established for children
  3. Basic categories of kinship
  4. What are the three categories of kinship?
    • Marriage
    • Descent
    • Fictive kinship
  5. While affinal relationships are those between spouses and their in-laws, _______ relationships are those between spouses and their biological links.
    consanguinal
  6. Descent
  7. Descent is the term for social units whose members believe what?
    That they have ancestors in common.
  8. What is unilineal descent?
    Assigning children to either the mother of father's kin group.
  9. What is the term for children being assigned to their mother's kin group? Their father's?
    Matrilineal descent; patrilineal descent
  10. In what societies is unilineal descent most often found? (2 kinds)
    In hunter-gatherer horticulturalists and nomadic pastoralist societies.
  11. True/False: Up to the 20th century, about 40% of all human cultures followed unilineal descent. If false, why?
    False. It was 60%.
  12. What is cognatic descent?
    Descent traced through both mother's and father's ancestors.
  13. In ______ descent, descent is traced through a combination of patrilineal with matrilineal descent patterns, while in ______ descent, men trace ancestry through male lines while women trace ancestry through female lines.
    bilineal; parallel
  14. What is ambilineal descent?
    Individuals select either mother's or father's descent line.
  15. What is bilateral descent?
    All children are members of both parents' descent lines.
  16. What is by far the most common of the cognatic descent systems?
    Bilateral descent.
  17. Lineages and Clans
  18. Common to both lineages and clans is the belief of descent from an ______ ancestor, or founder of the descent group.
    apical
  19. Lineages have ______ descent, in which members can trace the names and relationships of their kin in each generation from apical ancestor to present, while clans use _____ descent, in which members don't trace their ancestry through each generation back to apical ancestor.
    demonstrated; stipulated
  20. The term for an apical ancestor that is not human, but is an animal or plan is ______.
    totem
  21. What is fictive kinship?
    Kinship links created where they normally do not exist.
  22. Family Residence Types
  23. Parents and offspring living together are known as ________ family.
    nuclear
  24. 3 or more generations living together are known as ______ family.
    extended
  25. What is a collateral extended family?
    Siblings, their spouses, and their children living together.
  26. Post-marital Residence Rules
  27. What is neolocality?
    Married couples establishing a new home apart from their parents and other family.
  28. ______ is post-marriage residence with or near wife's family, while ______ is post-marriage residence with or near husband's family.
    Matrilocality; patrilocality
  29. A higher proportion of extended family households exist among _____ families in the U.S.
    poorer

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