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What are some indications to doing an abdominocentesis?
- "abdominal crisis/acute abdomen" - colic
- weight loss
- chronic GI disease
What are the two types of techniques for doing an abdominocentesis?
- percutaneous puncture with sharp needle
- stainless tear canula or bitch catether (blunt needle)
What is the disadvantage to doing a percutaneous puncture with a sharp needle?
may puncture the intestines and obtain a intraluminal sample instead of fluid from the abdominal cavity
How do we collect an abdominal sample using a stainless teat canula or bitch catheter?
- local block
- surgical prep
- stab incision with #10 or #15 scalpel blade
Where do we collect the sample for an abdominocentesis ?
lowest part of the belly (ventral most aspect of abdomen) and adjacent to the midline to avoid the linea alba
Why do we need to avoid subcutaneous vessels when doing an abdominocentesis?
leads to blood contamination of sample which will alter results
What blood tube do we collect the abdominocentesis in?
lavendar top tube (EDTA)
What is the normal color of fluid collected from an abdominocentesis? What is considered abnormal?
- normal: colorless or straw colored
- abnormal: blood tinged
What is the normal clarity of fluid collected from an abdominocentesis? What is considered abnormal?
- normal: clear
- abnormal: cloudy or turbid
What are the different things we need to analyze about the fluid collected from an abdominocentesis?
- gross description
- check protein levels using refractometer
- nucleated cell count
What is considered transudate?
- TP <2.5 g/dl
- nucleated cells <1000/ul
What is considered modified transudate?
- TP < 3.0 g/dl
- nucleated cells <5000/ul
What is considered exudate?
- TP >3.0 g/dl
- nucleated cells >5000/ul
What microscopic morphology do we need to note about fluid collect from an abdominocentesis?
- toxic changes to WBCs
- neoplastic cells
- bacterial population (means something is leaking and there is a poor prognosis)
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