Chapter 11 Ppt.

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Author:
DesLee26
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198550
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Chapter 11 Ppt.
Updated:
2013-02-06 22:34:27
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CHM 112
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Solutions and their Properties
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  1. What is a solution?
    What are the components?
    • a homogeneous mixture
    • solute: substance dissolved (have less of)
    • solvent: substance that dissolves (have more of)
  2. True or False:
    When water is involved, it's usually always the solute. 
    False: solvent
  3. True or False: Gases can be solutions. 
    True
  4. Properties of solutions
    • solute in solvent
    • variable composition
    • clear
    • homogeneous
    • do not settle
    • can separate by physical means
    • pass through filter paper
  5. True or False:
    Clear is colorless.
    False: not colorless (think windex)
  6. What are physical means of separation?
    evaporation, chromatography
  7. Other possibilities have to deal with __.
    particle size
  8. Suspension
    particles are in a solution; they settle; not homogeneous unless mixed
  9. What is solvation?
    the process in which an ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in a specific manner; surrounding the molecule by water solution; get water to interact with ions in the structure
  10. What is endothermic? Exothermic?
    • endo: +DeltaH
    • exo: -DeltaH
  11. To make a solution, what must occur?
     we need to break interactions between solvent, solute, and form interactions where the solute and solvent are attracted to each other
  12. What is good for DeltaS
    positive because you increase entropy
  13. Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous (in terms of Gibbs)
    • spontaneous: -
    • non: +
  14. What would a - deltaH feel like?
    hot; energy released
  15. What is the deltaH for solvent-solute interactiosn?
    negative; unfavorable
  16. solvent-solvent interactions
    energy is absorbed (positive deltaH) o overcome intermolecular forces between solvent molecules
  17. Solute-solute interactions
    energy is absorbed (positive deltaH) to overcome intermolecular forces holding solute particles together in a crystal
  18. Solvent-solute interactions
    energy is released (negative deltaH) when solvent molecules cluster around solute particles and solvate them
  19. Explain an exothermic deltaH solution.
    • the solute-solvent interactions are stronger than the solute-solute or solvent-solvent. 
    • Favorable
  20. Explain an endothermic deltaH soltuion.
    the solute-solvent interactions are weaker than the solute solute or solvent-solvent. Unfavorable
  21. Concentrated or Dilute
    • relative terms
    • dilute is usually half of concentrated, but it depends on the substance
  22. Saturated
    • contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solvent
    • usually depends on the temp
    • - as you heat liquids up, solutes will dissolve more (some do this)
  23. unsaturated
    contains less solute than a solvent has the capacity to dissolve
  24. Supersaturated
    contains more solute than would be present in a saturated solution
  25. Crystallization
    the process in which dissolved solute comes out of the solution and forms crystals

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