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What is a solution?
What are the components?
- a homogeneous mixture
- solute: substance dissolved (have less of)
- solvent: substance that dissolves (have more of)
True or False:
When water is involved, it's usually always the solute.
True or False: Gases can be solutions.
Properties of solutions
- solute in solvent
- variable composition
- do not settle
- can separate by physical means
- pass through filter paper
True or False:
Clear is colorless.
False: not colorless (think windex)
What are physical means of separation?
Other possibilities have to deal with __.
particles are in a solution; they settle; not homogeneous unless mixed
What is solvation?
the process in which an ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in a specific manner; surrounding the molecule by water solution; get water to interact with ions in the structure
What is endothermic? Exothermic?
- endo: +DeltaH
- exo: -DeltaH
To make a solution, what must occur?
we need to break interactions between solvent, solute, and form interactions where the solute and solvent are attracted to each other
What is good for DeltaS
positive because you increase entropy
Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous (in terms of Gibbs)
What would a - deltaH feel like?
hot; energy released
What is the deltaH for solvent-solute interactiosn?
energy is absorbed (positive deltaH) o overcome intermolecular forces between solvent molecules
energy is absorbed (positive deltaH) to overcome intermolecular forces holding solute particles together in a crystal
energy is released (negative deltaH) when solvent molecules cluster around solute particles and solvate them
Explain an exothermic deltaH solution.
- the solute-solvent interactions are stronger than the solute-solute or solvent-solvent.
Explain an endothermic deltaH soltuion.
the solute-solvent interactions are weaker than the solute solute or solvent-solvent. Unfavorable
Concentrated or Dilute
- relative terms
- dilute is usually half of concentrated, but it depends on the substance
- contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solvent
- usually depends on the temp
- - as you heat liquids up, solutes will dissolve more (some do this)
contains less solute than a solvent has the capacity to dissolve
contains more solute than would be present in a saturated solution
the process in which dissolved solute comes out of the solution and forms crystals