Language & Communication

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Language & Communication
2013-02-07 01:43:13
Cultural Anthropology

Final Review
Show Answers:

  1. Define language.
    Visual, auditory, & tactile symbols of communication.
  2. What are call systems?
    Sounds used by other primates which are limited in their combination and range.
  3. Stages of Verbal Acquisition
  4. From 2-5 months, babies ____ (make vowel-like sounds).
  5. From 5-12 months, babies _____ (make syllable-like consonant-vowel sounds)
  6. When do infants begin to comprehend some aspects of language and exhibit meaningful gestures?
    Around 9-12 months.
  7. When do children begin to form two-word utterances?
    Around 2 years of age.
  8. When do children's language begin to develop into simple sentences?
    Around 2.5-3 years of age.
  9. By what age have children acquired the majority of their native language(s)?
    By age 5.
  10. What is the cut-off age for bilinguals to have native proficiency?
    By age 6 or 7.
  11. Ferdinand de Sausurre
  12. Language results from the arbitrary association between _____ and _____.
    words; meaning
  13. ________ = word, while ______ = meaning of the word
    signifier; signified
  14. The external manifestation (speech) of an individual is known as _____.
  15. Chomsky's Universal Grammar
  16. The idea that all languages have a common structural basis is known as _______ ______.
    universal grammar
  17. What languages lend support to Chomsky's theory?
  18. Creole languages develop from _________ languages, which develop as a means of communication between groups that do not have a language in common.
  19. What 3 things does the development of pidgin languages require?
    • Long-term contact between speakers of different languages.
    • A reason to communicate between these speakers.
    • Lack of proficiency in a common language.
  20. Creole Languages
  21. Where have creole languages historically developed?
    In places where slaves were forced to abandon their languages for their masters' languages.
  22. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
  23. What does the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis say?
    That the grammar of each particular language leads speaker of different languages to understand the world differently.
  24. Some evidence of this would include ____ dividing time into past, present and future, while _____ divided time into events that exist (past+present) and those that don't or don't yet exist (future + imaginary events)
    English; Hopi
  25. Non-Verbal Communication
  26. What are the 5 functions of nonverbal "body language"?
    • Express emotions
    • Express interpersonal attitudes
    • Accompany speech managing cues for interaction between speakers
    • Presentation and personality
    • Rituals (greetings)
  27. Gender and Non-Verbal Communication in US (Tannen)
  28. Women tend to... (2 things)
    • Look directly at each other when speaking
    • Draw limbs in towards themselves with men
  29. Men/boys tend to ...(2 things)
    • not look directly at the person they are speaking with
    • sprawl out in conversational groups
  30. Gender, Games, and Communication (Wood)
  31. While ____ games involve teamwork, rules and roles, and winning, ____ games involve small groups, no clear-cut rules, and a process of communication
    boys; girls
  32. Gender & Verbal Communication in US
  33. Women engage in _____ talk, or "private speaking, while men engage in ______ talk, or "public speaking"
    rapport; report
  34. Phonology
  35. What is phonology?
    The study of speech sounds
  36. Define phoneme.
    Differences in sound that make different meanings.
  37. Phonemes, from language to language, range from ___-___, with an average of ____-____.
    15-60; 30-40
  38. How many phonemes does Standard English have?
  39. Morphology
  40. Define morphology.
    The study of how sounds combine to form words.
  41. Words and their meaningful parts are known as ______.
  42. A language's vocabulary of all words is it's ______.
  43. ____ is the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences.
  44. Sociolinguistics
  45. Define sociolinguistics.
    How language is used by the speakers of the language, or the performance of the language.
  46. Black English Vernacular (BEV)
  47. True/False: Many of the features of BEV that distinguish it from Standard English are also common in southern US white speech. If false, why?
  48. The absence of SE forms of the verb "to be" are known as ______ _____.
    copula deletion
  49. Historical Linguistics
  50. Define linguistics.
    The study of languages, formation, meaning and use.
  51. The language from which later languages derived is known as _____ language, while languages that derive from that language are known as _______ language.
    proto; daughter