ald test 1

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  1. Analogy
    • is when an individual perceives similarities and differences between objects or event and uses that information to solve problems or learn about the world.
    • Ex. Clear is to cloudy as shallow is to deep???
  2. Syllogism
    • a form of argument that contains two premises and a conclusion that follows logically from those premises.
    • Ex. All mammals are warm-blooded:
    • All black dogs are mammals.
    • Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded.
  3. Metaphor
    • contains a term, called "the topic", which is likened to another term, called "the vehicle", on the basis of one or more shared features called the "ground".
    • Ex. the giraffe was a flagpole living at the zoo. (giraffe-topic, flagpole-vehicle, tallness-ground)
  4. Simile
    • variation of a predicative metaphor that make a comparison between the topic and the vehicle more explicit by inserting the word 'like' or a phrase 'as adjective as'.
    • Ex. The giraffe was like a flagpole living at the zoo.
  5. Idiom
    • expressions that can have both a literal and a figurative interpretation depending on linguistic text.
    • Ex. "skating on thin ice"
  6. Slang
    • informal type of figurative expression used by particular subcultures and is generational.
    • Ex. “scamming, or wipe out, boss
  7. Proverb
    • statements that express the collective values, beliefs and wisdom of a society.
    • Ex. Don't count your chickens before they hatch.
  8. Fable
    • short, imaginative stories that conclude with a proverbial statement or moral.
    • Ex. the "the ant and the grasshopper" (it is best to prepare for the days of necessity.
  9. What is the significant difference between a metaphor and a simile?
    Similes are metaphors but are more explicit and make a comparison between the topic and the vehicle by inserting the word like or (ex. as tall as)
  10. List and describe two developmental tasks of adolescence.
    • 1. Acceptance of physical changes of puberty
    • 2. Attainment of independence. got on Pg. 36 but also on page 34?
    • 1. Develop a sense of self-identity that is a unique combination of values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Pg 34
    • 2. Adapt to a physically changing body, as well as make psychological adjustment, including gender identity. Pg 34
  11. Briefly describe what is meant by: Understanding is Inference Generation. (Catts & Kamhi, pg. 14)
    the ability to contruct meaning involves accessing relevant world knowledge and generating inferences that are needed to make sentences cohere and to relate text to world knowldege.
  12. List and describe two differences between narrative and expository text.
    • Narrative - purpose to entertain and expository - purpose is to inform
    • Narrative- has familiar schema content and Expository has unfamiliar schema
  13. Describe the major characteristics of a literate home environment. Explain how this environment helps prepare children for school-based language tasks.
    • 1. literacy artifacts
    • 2. literacy events
    • 3. the types of knowledge children gain from literacy experiences.
    • Low-print homes, little exposure to literacy artifacts & events, enter school with little lit. know.
    • High-print homes enjoy language & literacy – may be at early stage of word recognition when they enter school
    • Joint book reading; the single most important activity for develoing the knowledge required for eventual success in reading
    • Literacy knowledge depends on how much exposure and interest & facility in learning – “literacy socialization”
    • Alphabetic principle: that letters stand for individual sounds in words and awareness that words consist of discrete sounds – phoneme awareness
  14. Why are well-developed theoretical tenets important to the assessment and intervention of older students with language disorders? Pg bottom of 13 top of 14
    A theory should unify, relate, and explain diverse phenomena that were previously viewed as separate, unrelated and unaccountable. Theories provide an explaination of phenomena and guidleines for action. In communication sciences and disrders, theroies should provide the framework on which procedures are based. In summary a theory provides a basis for action, a rationale for practice and a road map for exploring unfamiliar terrain.
  15. If you believe in cognitive modifiability and mediated learning, would you also support the use of IQ discrepancy criteria? Why or why not?
    • Cognitive modifiability states that even if cognition is impaired, it has the
    • ability to change. Mediated learning takes place when a teacher guides you
    • into learning. The earlier mediated learning begins and the more it is used,
    • the greater the capacity for learning. Based on that information, the use of IQ
    • discrepancy criteria would be inadvisable because even if a client's language
    • matches their current IQ level, their cognition can grow and change, and their
    • language would need to grow and change with it.
  16. What is social learning theory?
    A combination of psychoacnalytic and behavioral theory.
  17. How does anthropological theory describe adolescence?
    A phenomenon created by Western Society
  18. How does sociological theory characterize adolescence?
    Internalized social anxiety
  19. What is one adolescent characteristic according to biological theory? Now considered a myth.
    storm and stress
  20. What is field theory?
    A transition in group membership
  21. What is the myth of continuous growth?
    Growth characterized by spurt, troughs, and plateaus
  22. What is "There's nothing more to do"?
    The problem is lack of functional communication asssessment
  23. What is the turmoil myth?
    The problem is in the mind of adults, not adolescents- throw away population
  24. What is life skills incompetence?
    Adolescents may be excluded from opportunities to work and learn
  25. What is the generation gap?
    Differences in preferences and means, not goals or beliefs
  26. What is information processing theory?
    An executive control structure with stages of increasing complexity.
  27. What is identity development stage theory?
    A crisis of commitment
  28. What is a general development stage theory?
    Enviornment stimulates, modifies, and supports growth, but cannot sequence it.
  29. What is moral development stage theory?
    Humanistic, reward/punishment, and conformity
  30. What is cognitive stage theory?
    This is based on Piaget
  31. What is adolescence?
    The years between puberty and the completion of bone growth
  32. What is cognitive modifiability?
    A human is capable of change, even if there has been inadequate exposure
  33. What is commitment?
    Degree of personal investment
  34. What is the Personal Fable phenomenon?
    Im not like other people
  35. What is the Imaginary Audience phenomenon?
    Im performing for everyone
  36. What is the implication of biological theory?
    Be sensitive to the readiness to acquire behavior
  37. What are the ways clinicians can cope with theories?
    Ignore, pick one, pick two, or select parts from a variety
  38. What is an implication of field theory?
    Be aware of feeling, don't make rules that cause frustration
  39. What is an implication of psychoanalytic theory?
    Behaviors are learned by observation, be concerned about environmental factors
  40. What is the implication of anthropological theory?
    Account for and accommodate cultural differences.
  41. Ability to combine sounds into larger units
    Synthesis
  42. The ability to perceive relationships between words that rhyme
    auditory perceptual skills
  43. You need enough to simultaneously decode and comprehend
    attentional skills
  44. Ability to rapidly recognize and retrieve sounds and words
    sequential memory
  45. Ability to distinguish and discriminate letter shapes and sizes
    visual perceptual skills
  46. Learns that some words with the same “root” have the same spelling pattern
    derviational relations stage
  47. Appreciates the meaning-spelling connection
    syllable junture stage
  48. Single syllables, invented spelling
    within a word pattern stage
  49. Do not understand that writing represents sounds
    preliterate/emergent stage
  50. Spells simple sight words
    lettername/alphabetic stage
  51. ability to envision the scene described by the author, not only the visual details, but also the smells, sounds, physical and emotional environment
    imagery
  52. ability to access stored lexical knowledged, hold sentences in working memory long enough to establish relationships, and draw from long-term memroy for memory information.
    Memory
  53. ability to understand complex spoken sentences with embedded clauses.
    syntax
  54. Ability to understand the multiple meanings and subtle nuances of spoken language, as well as interpret idiomatic, figurative, and colloquial speech.
    Semantics
  55. ability to find evidence in a passage to support logical generalizations and conclusions,preceive the author's purpose or intention, apply criteria or standars with which to make judgments on content, ideas, methods, products, and people that are presented in the text.
    Higher level cognitive skills
  56. ability to identify the topic of the paragraph or chapter to be read, understand motivation that causes individuals to react and respond, empathize with people who are unhappy, embarrased, or frightened in real life
    Pragmatics
  57. ability to attend to text and focus attention on the relevent, important aspects of text, simultaneously decoding and comprehending text
    Attention
  58. Characteristics of Narrative Text
    • - purpose to entertain
    • - connective words not critical (primarily 'and', 'then', and 'so')
    • - Can use top-down processing
    • - focus on character motivations, intentions, goals
  59. Characteristics of Expository Text
    • - focus on factual information and abstract ideas
    • - must use logical-deductive inferences based on information in texts
    • - comprehension often tested in formal, sturctured methods
  60. Characteristics of Persuasion
    • - use of argumentation to convince another person to perform an act or accept a point of view.
    • - communication to resolve conflicts and achieve goals in mutually acceptable ways
    • - an increase in the number of arguments
    • - states advantges to the listener as a reason to comply
  61. expressions that can have both a literal and a figurative interpretation depending on linguistic context
    Idioms
  62. informal type of figurative expression used by particular subcultures and is generational.
    Slang
  63. variation of a predictive metaphor that makes a comparison between the topic and the vehicle more explicit by inserting ther word 'like' or a phrase, 'as X as'.
    Simile
  64. statements that express the colective values, beliefs, and wisdom of a society.
    Proverb
  65. contains a term, 'topic', with is likened to another term, 'vehicle', on the basis of one or more shared features, 'ground'.
    Metaphor
  66. short, imaginitive stories that conclude with a proverbial statement or moral.
    Fable
  67. (Blooms Taxonomy)-take information apart for similarities & differences
    Analysis
  68. (Blooms Taxonomy)-apply information to new, related situations by analogy
    Application
  69. (Blooms Taxonomy)-Grasp meaning and abstract patterns to explain meaning.
    comprehension
  70. (Blooms Taxonomy)-create, invent, bring concepts and ideas together in problem solving
    Synthesis
  71. (Blooms Taxonomy)-Remember given information
    Knowledge
  72. (Blooms Taxonomy-)judge and evaluate according to social, academic, or other criteria
    Evaluation
  73. Average Number of Words Used per C-Unit can be used to measure:
    Both Oral and Written Language
  74. Percentage of Total Words in Mazes can be used to measure.
    Oral language??
  75. Average Number of Dependent Clauses per C-Unit can be used to measure:
    Both Oral and Written Language
  76. Analysis of microstructure can be used to measure:
    Both Oral and Written Language
  77. Rules of conversation-Avoid ambiguity, obscurity of expression. Be brief and orderly.
    Manner: how to be clear
  78. Rules of conversation-Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. But make it as informative as required.
    Quantity: informativeness
  79. Rules of conversation-Be relevant.
    Relationship: Topic management
  80. Rules of conversation-Do not say what you believe to be false or for which you lack adequate evidence
    Quality: Sincerity
  81. I seed him last week.
    AE
  82. I see him last week.
    AAE
  83. I saw him last week.
    SAE
  84. Maria is going?
    SIE/LE
  85. What it is?
    AAE
  86. Maria going?
    AE
  87. Is Maria going?
    SAE
  88. Three cookie.
    AE
  89. three cookie, three sheeps
    AAE
  90. Three cookies.
    SAE
  91. Which two dialects would typically produce unmarked past tense if the context makes time understood?
    AAE, SIE/LE
  92. Communication problems in both English and the student's primary language.
    Language disorder
  93. A rule-governed language code or system that is different from Standard American English.
    Language difference
  94. "In sequential second language learning, language loss in the first language is ___________ and __________.
    Expected, common
  95. Often cannot place concepts in a hierarchy
    To place concepts into hierarchical order
  96. Make chaos out of order
    To observe, organize, and categorize data from an experience
  97. Have limited strategies for finding, selecting, and utilizing data
    To find, select, and utilize data on a given topic
  98. May not recognize a problem when it exists; if so, do not view more than one solution
    To identify problems, suggest possible causes and solutions, and predict consequences
  99. Often remain concrete operational thinkers
    To be at the formal operational level
  100. Do not know the labels for talking about language during formal education
    To talk about and reflect on linguistic forms
  101. Have difficulty bringing awareness to categories and relations in all aspects of language
    To demonstrate conscious awareness of linguistic knowledge
  102. Do not have an awareness of breakdowns; if so, lack repair strategies
    To assess communication breakdowns and revise them
  103. Do not comprehend or produce slang/jargon, thus are ostracized from their most desired group
    To comprehend and produce the slang and jargon of the hour
  104. May not realize that directions are being given and/or have difficulty following multistep (3+ step) directions.
    To follow oral directions of three steps or more after listening to them one time.
  105. Use sentences that are fragmented and that do not convey intended messages
    To use grammatically intact utterances
  106. Misunderstand advanced syntactical forms
    To comprehend all linguistic features and structures
  107. Have word-retrieval problems and often use low-information words.
    To have a vocabulary sufficient for expressing ideas and experiences
  108. Fail to use organizational frameworks or narrative structure, thus leaving their listeners confused
    To make a report, tell or retell as story, and explain a process in detail
  109. Have abrasive conversational speech
    To express attitudes, moods, and feelings and to disagree appropriately
  110. Use many false starts and verbal mazes
    To produce language that is organized, coherent, and intelligible
  111. Consistently violate the rules of conversation
    To follow adult conversational rules for speakers
  112. Often have poor listening skills
    To be effective listeners during conversation without displaying incorrect listening habits
  113. Violate the rules for social distance
    To follow nonverbal rules for proxemics
  114. Violate the rules for bodily movements and misinterpret gestures and facial expressions
    To follow nonverbal rules for kinesics
  115. Do not know and/or apply spelling rules or the exceptions to these rules
    To spell fluently
  116. Do not consistently and/or efficiently generate written language that conveys intended messages; tend not to plan or edit writing
    To produce cohesive written language required in various academic, social, and vocational situations by organizing, planning, composing, and editing
  117. Do not consistently and/or efficiently decode and comprehend words, sentences, and discourse – may lack phonological awareness skills and alphabetic letter knowledge
    To decode and comprehend from printed symbols in various academic, social, and vocational situations
  118. Do not alter reading strategies across genres and disciplines
    To read fluently across a variety of genres and disciplines
  119. Do not adjust reading strategies to accommodate the writer’s purpose
    To read fluently for a variety of purposes
  120. Consequences of TBI are immediate and have no long-term symptoms or symptoms that emerge later in development.
    False
  121. People with a CHI often have a lingering sense of being normal that persists from the premorbid period.
    True
  122. Children with a CHI are the same as students with other disabilities and should be treated similarly.
    False
  123. A TBI in adolescence may contribute to regression of cognitive level, so that the person becomes more concrete and rigid in thinking and perspective taking.
    True
  124. An individual with ADD/ADHD would have characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
    True
  125. Adolescents with ADD/ADHD have NO behaviors that could be considered pragmatic or metacognitive deficits.
    False
  126. There are physical characteristics that are associated with FAS.
    True
  127. Children with FAS/FAE are good students who are popular, social, and use effective communication.
    False
  128. Children with FAS/FAE have difficulty with time, space, and causal concepts, as well as pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic language difficulties.
    True
  129. Providing services to students with ASD/PDD is one of the most demanding areas of school-based SLP series.
    True
  130. Characteristics of ASD occur across three broad categories: impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication, & restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, interests, or activities.
    True
  131. Definitions for Learning disability(LD) and Specific learning disability(SLD) both include problems with listening, speaking, reading, writing, thinking, and mathematics.
    True
  132. Students with LD or SLD commonly have social-emotional problems associated with academics.
    True
  133. Approximately 85% of youth in juvenile court are functionally illiterate.
    True
  134. In Los Angeles, 50% of young suicide victims were diagnosed as learning disabled.
    True
  135. From a longitudinal study of children with speech and/or language impairments, results indicated:
    • - high rates of communication problems persisted into adulthood
    • - language performance was stable over time
    • - long-term outcomes for those with speech impairments were better than those with language impairments
    • - progress was more favorable for those with SLI than those with impairments secondary to sensory, structural, neurological, or cognitive deficits.

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