Religion & Spirituality

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Religion & Spirituality
2013-02-07 02:50:40
Cultural Anthropology

Final Review
Show Answers:

  1. What are Wallace's kinds of religions? (4 kinds)
    • Shamanic
    • Communal
    • Olympian
    • Monotheistic
  2. Shamanic Religions
  3. What are shamans?
    Part-time religious leaders who mediate between human beings and supernatural forces & beings.
  4. Where are they mostly found?
    In hunter-gatherer societies.
  5. Jivaro (or Shuar): Ecuador
  6. What are tsen tsak?
    Invisible darts sent by rival shamans causing illness and death
  7. Define tzantza.
    Shrunken heads of rival individuals captured in war raids.
  8. Why was head-shrinking practiced?
    They believed that this captured the muisak (soul) of the victim, which protected it from further shamanistic attacks.
  9. Polytheistic belief systems are most common with _____ societies.
  10. Doubt in the existence of a god or gods is known as being _____.
  11. Customs associated with the transition from one stage of life to another are known as ______ _____ _______.
    rites of passage
  12. 3 Stages of Rites of Passage
  13. Describe the 3 stages of rites of passage.
    • Separation of initiates from non-inititates.
    • The liminal stage, in which people occupy an ambiguous social position.
    • Re-incorporation into group at a new social position.
  14. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor
  15. What was Tylor considered?
    The founder of the anthropology of religion.
  16. What did Tylor believe when it came to the progression of culture?
    That it was related to the culture's religious system.
  17. Emile Durkheim
  18. Durkheim believed that the model for relationships of people and the supernatural was the same as the relationship of individuals to their ______.
  19. Religion is the basic form of social ______.
  20. What are the four major functions of religion?
    • Disciplinary
    • Cohesive
    • Vitalizing
    • Euphoric
  21. Totems
  22. From totemism comes the separation of the _____ and the _____.
    sacred; profane
  23. Mircea Eliade
  24. What are religious belief and practice based on?
    The division into the sacred and profane.
  25. What bridges the gap between the unknowable (sacred) and the observable (profane)?
  26. Religious Syncretism
  27. What is religious syncretism?
    The blending of the religious beliefs and practices of two different religions forming into a new religion.
  28. What is this form of religion most often a result of?
    Slaves being forced to accept the religion of their masters.
  29. Common Traits of African-based Syncretism in the Americas
  30. What are orishas?
    Deities, intermediaries between creator gods and human beings.
  31. What are common traits of African-based Syncretism in the Americas? (5 traits)
    • Communal houses of worship
    • Dance, music as ritual bridge between humans and orishas
    • Physical communion with orishas - possession trances
    • Belief that natural forces can be manipulated by certain individuals that have spiritual powers.
    • Rituals of healing and purification.
  32. Fundamentalism
  33. What is antimodernism?
    The rejection of the modern world in favor of what is perceived as an earlier and purer way of life.
  34. What is fundamentalism?
    Militant rejection of modern; doing battle against the world.
  35. World Religions
  36. What is the world's largest religion?