Card Set Information

2013-05-13 12:02:31

Vocab for Final
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  1. CPU
    • Central processing Unit
    • Heart of it 
    • Performs arithmetic
    • Has ALU,control Unit, register storage, memory
  2. ALU
    • Arithmetic Logic Unit
    • Does calculations with what the control unit sends it
  3. Control Unit
    • Controls ALU, memory
    • Performs flow of data to different compartments resulting in processed data
  4. Register Storage area
    • Most expensive and fastest memory
    • Not a lot on the CPU
    • CPU performs on data in registers and if not there then goes to cash levels, then memory, then 2nd storage and brings it back up to register
  5. 2nd Storage
    • Least expensive and slowest memory
    • Where everything is stored when computer not on, and has the most space
  6. Main Memory
    • The Primary memory that holds RAM
    • Faster than secondary storage
  7. Seeking
    Process of looking for something on a disk (the hardrive)
  8. Swapping
    • Take information from the secondary storage and witch with something from main memory, until you have the information you need
    • Main memory only has so much room so must swap information so main isn't over loaded
  9. Ports
    Connects to secondary storage/harddrive
  10. Input
    • User provides info
    • Mouse, keyboard
  11. Output
    • Computer provides info back
    • Monitor, printer
  12. Communication devices
    Allows networks of computers to talk to each other
  13. Boot Process
    This consists of the moment you press the on button to you screen showing up
  14. Boot Order
    • Which order computer looks for OS and in CMOS
    • CPU->BIOS->POST->CMOS->MBR->Execute OS
  15. CPU infinite loop
    • Fetch (instruction)
    • Decode (instruction)
    • Execute (instructions)
  16. Where does CPU get info when wakes up?
    • Goes to BIOS chip
    • Holds permanent instructions to execute
  17. BIOS Chip
    • Basic input/output system
    • Flash memory which holds 1st instructions for CPU
  18. BIOS Instructions
    • 1)CPU runs POST
    • Power On Self Test
    • If RAM is good, CPU good then moves on
    • If error, then generates beeps according to number of problems
  19. POST
    • Power On Self Test
    • Sanity, work ability of CPU and Main memory
  20. OS
    • Operating System
    • On a DVD or Hard drive
    • Self of instructions ( a program)
  21. CMOS
    • On mother board
    • Another memory and holds configuration data (current time, boot process)
    • Tells where to look for OS
  22. MBR
    • Master Boot Record
    • Has as pointer or address to where the OS is on the device
    • Gives instructions in Sector 0 of disk
    • If MBR damaged or lose Sector 0, then OS won't boot
    • If 2 OS, MBR has another component to ask which one to run
  23. Motherboard
    • Where all major components are housed
    • CPU Socket is main part
  24. Extension Slots
    Allow to connect things to it
  25. DRAM
    Dynamic Ram
  26. AGP Slot
    Process Graphics
  27. PCI Slot
    Connect devices such as network communication
  28. Port
    Integrated into the motherboard
  29. Temporary Storage
    • When system is out, no more memory
    • Called volatile memory
    • Cash, register, ram (main)
  30. System Clock
    • Synchronize activity on motherboard
    • Frequency of activity is measured in MHZ
    • Input in CPU that allows cloce to operate 
  31. Hurtz
    Number of cyles per second
  32. Jumpers
    • Dip Switches
    • Hard-wired instructions in 1 and 0
    • The different combinations accomplish different tasks you can't do with software
  33. Bus
    • System of pathways used for communication
    • Bunch of wires (number of wires-bit bus)
    • Talks to CPU by putting info in 1 and 0
    • CPU communicates by putting electrical activity through bus
  34. Different Buses
    • Address bus: carries address line of where it is going
    • Data bus: caries the data that will go in the address line
    • Control bus: is the clock and weather is is to read or write (read =1, write =0)
  35. Bits
    • Are in the power of 2
    • 2^10 = 1024 = 1K
    • 2^31 = 1K*1K*1K*2 = 2 gig
  36. 64 Processor means...
    At any time, exchange 64 bits back and forth
  37. 4 Gig storage means...
    How many address lines therer are 
  38. Storage Devices
    • Temporary
    • secondary
    • Master
    • Serial ATA
    • SCSI
  39. SEcondary
    • Hardviees where it is for permanent
    • Stay when power off 
  40. Interrupt Request
    CPU is called to do something, so it finishes it current task then interrupts and handles the request
  41. IRQS
    Slow devices interact with CPU with interrupt request
  42. DMA
    • Direct memory access
    • Fast devices need to send straight to memory
    • Call CPU buses which is direct access so CPU gram buses 
    • Used DMA channel to ask for access to it as well as returning it
  43. Chipset
    • DMA controller
    • Has to do with control of other devices
  44. DMA Channels
    • DRAM Refresh (dynamic ram)
    • Leaky so every so often it refills which is done through DMA and allows it to just be done without permission
  45. LAN
    • Local Area Network
    • Building block for internetworks
    • Connected by routers
  46. Internetwork
    Network of 100 or more computers
  47. MAN
    • Metropolitan Area Network
    • Spans metropolitan area
  48. WAN
    • Wide Area Network
    • Internetworks of multiple MANs
  49. Internet
    Global internetwork
  50. NIC
    • Network Interface Core
    • Converts information to 1 & 0
    • One end connect to network, other end connect to motherboard where information comes and gets transmitted
  51. HUB
    • Establishes a connect
    • Cords from two different ports connect to hub which connects the 2 computers
    • Switch is an intelligent hub
    • All it does is repeat information and who from, where going and repeats
    • Repeats to all NIC's connected to it
  52. Physical Medium
    Cables have 4 pairs of wires used for transmission and interception which carries an electrical pulse
  53. Patch Panel
    • Nothing but a Jack
    • Computers connect to jack, connects to patch panel and those both connect to the HUB to connect two computers
  54. MAC address
    • AKA: physical address, hardware address
    • 48 Bit MAC address associated with NIC and every single one is unique
  55. Nibble
    • 4 bits together
    • 8 together make a byte
  56. HEX conversion
    8421 and add them up where 10 = A and goes to F
  57. Frame
    • NIC to talk to another NIC must create a Frame
    • Destination: Source: Data: CRC
    • CRC is cyclic redundancy code or Frame Check Sum: helps recognize if something goes wrong. Creates redundant piece of information and checks if they match
  58. ARP
    • Address resolution protocol
    • Identifying mac address of computers by name
    • Each NIC makes a ARP Cache and fills it will the Name: Mac address of the other computers on the network
    • Only a local area techniques not WAN
    • Routers filter out ARP
  59. Process of Transfer Data
    • 1) Gets Data (x)
    • 2) Sending Workstation (x) creates a frame
    • 3) Consults ARP cache and translates destination to mac address and CRC check if good or bad
    • 4) Sends out bits to hug and hub repeats info
    • 5) EAch other computer looks at 48 bits and if not match, then doesn't listen
    • 6) Destination takes it and data gets transported up
  60. ARP Broadcast
    • Computer sends out a broadcast by creating an ARP request Frame with destination FFFFFF to all those to listen and asks what is (z) mac address
    • Hub repeats to all computers and the destination creates a response to fill the ARP cache
  61. IP Address:
    • ID to take beyond the LAN
    • 32 bit address or ID separated by decimals 
    • 765433210 in power of 2 so really
    • where 255 is the max with all 1's
  62. Network Protocol
    • Network Layer
    • Link Layer
    • Physical layer
  63. Network Layer
    • Responsible for inter network transport over routers
    • IP packets
    • Static: IP address permanent and only yours
    • Dynamic: Provided by service and get for a while
  64. Link Layer
    • Operating on LAN
    • Responsible for transport over single link (LAN)
  65. Physical Layer
    • Responsible for transport of bits
    • Trasiever/Receiver that connects to medium (wire)
  66. Hub
    • 1 computer communicated to hub by sending frame
    • Hub repeats to everyone
    • Workstations look at destination and see if for them
    • Only a repeater and is at lowest physical layer of network protocol
  67. Switch
    • Intelligent
    • Operates at link layer 
    • Knows what it has in switch table (prorts, MAC)
    • More than 1 line of communication can be established
    • Understands frame
  68. Switch Table
    • Has MAC addresses and the Ports they are located on
    • Learning Process: is where it learns the MAC addresses and ports form traffic
    • Forward and filter: If still not have one, then forward to everyone like a hub to learn it
  69. Process of two station commuicating on Lan
    • Data, Dest IP, Source IP come to network layer
    • Dest IP uses ARP cache and network makes a PACKET with dest mac, source mac, data
    • Packet goes to link layer and is inserted in data portion of frame
    • Frame moves physical network and broken to 1's and 0's and get's sent across
    • Comes in and Link layer check sCRC and if good then Destructs frame
    • Sends packet up and data taken out and moved up
  70. Masking
    • Set a certain portion of the IP address to be the network
    • Represent with 255 and the rest 0's
    • This is called subnet part of address
    • If they have the same mask, it doesn't mean they are on the same network
    • = 254 unique addresses
    • = 2^16 = 64 thousand
    • = 2^24 = 16 mill subnets
  71. Same Subnet Process
    • Mask applied to Dest IP
    • Mask applied to Source IP
    • If same subnet then in same LAN and goes to dest
  72. Not same Subnet
    • Apply mask and if not same then goes to default gateway
    • The Dest MAC is the routers but the source stays who it's from
    • Need this because outside of lan
  73. Default Gateway
    • Like a postoffice
    • Default gateway is the routers IP 
    • This gateway traffics where it needs to go
  74. Frame
    • Dest MAC
    • Source MAC
    • Packet
    • CRC
  75. Router's Job
    • Takes Frame apart and retracts Packet
    • Looks at destination of packet
    • Looks to router table to find where needs to go
    • Recreates frame and sends to destination
  76. Routers
    • Operate at Network Layer
    • Have 2 Nics so IP addresses acn communicate to two Lans
    • Operates at layer 3 OSI
    • Don't care about IP Addresses
    • Care about subnets
    • Work with logical IP's
    • Work with packets
    • Don't forward broadcasts
    • Use routing tables
    • Point to point since delievers only one step at a time
  77. Switches
    • Work with MAC addressses
    • Work with Frames
    • Broadcast across LANS
    • Use switch tables
  78. Packet
    • Dest IP
    • Source IP
    • Data
    • CRC
    • Stays in one piece the whole way through
  79. Routing Table
    • Has Network and interface as columns
    • Subnet, Mask, default gateway, Hops, interface
    • If it doesn't recognize subnet, default is,, default gateway IP, Hops, Interface
    • Only has those for Lan's and default gateway
  80. Static Routing Table
    Tables craeted by user
  81. Dynamic Routing Table
    Computer has a Routing Interface Protocol that learns the difffernt IP's and send messages to create the table
  82. Transport Layer OSI
    • 1st layer that operates from one end to other end
    • Called end to end because it doesn't exist on routers
    • TCP and UDP
  83. TCP
    • Breaks packet into parts and gives sequence number and sends out 1 after anotherHas a Source Port, Dest Port, Sequence #, Acknowledged  chunk of packet
    • It's jot is to ensure end to end delivery
    • Waits for response and when doesn't get one, sends again
  84. UDP
    • Doesn't gaurentee delivery
    • Audio is example and used because it needs it right away and after the time has passed, it's not needed anymore.
  85. All Layer's OSI
    • Physical: transmit recieve, NIC, c able, Hub
    • Link: MAC, Fram, NIC, Switch
    • Network: IP, Packets, router
    • Transport: UDP, TCP
    • Session Layer
    • Presentation Layer
    • Application Layer: Http
  86. Session Layer
    • Allows maintance on multiple sessions 
    • Keeps track of assigning session ID so multiple things can happen at once
  87. Presentation Layer
    • Takes original data and presents to network depending on encrypt and decrypt messages
    • Cahnges data according to request and makes srue other end understands revision
  88. Application Layer
    • One end talks to application and other end talks to network
    • Http, ftp, fsnp
    • You do not directly work with it.
    • Example is on a browser you click something and it goes to Http and sends through presentation layer and so on
  89. Peer to Peer
    • No device on network has any specific responsibility
    • easy set up 
    • no more than 10 devices
    • no central place for info
  90. Client Server
    • Servers have a purpose to serve
    • dedicated hardware, server 
    • More expensive
    • need more knowledge
  91. Server
    • Hardware and software
    • File server means a hardware designed for serving files
    • Lots of server on one server so file server is service being provided
  92. Topology
    • How things are connected and work with each other
    • Physical: messages goes along from person to person
    • Logical: How communication takes place
  93. Physical B Topology
    • Simplest and needs 1 cable
    • If cable breaks nothing will work
    • Terminators at end to absorb and not confuse signal
  94. Physical star
    • Most popular now days
    • Central point where everyone connects to 
    • Central control produces huge number cable runs is disadvantage
  95. Physical Ring
    • Connected in a circle with no termination
    • Signal travels 1 direction around ring
  96. Mesh Topology
    • Every computer is connected to every other computer
    • A lot of reliability
    • Used for LAN
    • A start with circle around it
  97. Logical Bus
    • 1 speaks and they all hear
    • Only 1 can speak at a time
  98. Logical Ring
    Flow of traffic goes to one computer to the next in a ring and in order
  99. Switched Topology
    Can speak specifically to only one station
  100. Bus Topology
    • Passive: simply repeats what is coming in 
    • Active: repeats and boots signal
  101. 3 most common cables
    • Coax
    • Twisted Pairs
    • Fiber optics
  102. Shared Characteristics of cables
    • Bandwidth rating
    • Maximum segment length
    • Max num segments per internetwork
    • Max num devices per segment
    • Max num devices per internetwork
    • Interfearence suceptability
    • Connection hardware
    • Cable grade
    • Bend radius
    • Material cost
    • Installation cost
  103. Baseband
    • Uses digital signal
    • Medium can carry only one signal
  104. Broadband
    • Analog signal
    • Multiple bands per medium
    • Simplex transmission: 1 directional
    • Duplex: bidirectional on single medium
    • Midsplit: break up 1 cable ans send and receive on it
    • Dual: has 2 cables and receive and sends on seperate
  105. Coax Cable
    • Core carries signal
    • Has mesh shielding protect from EM radiation
    • Old had thin (10Base2) Thick (10Base5)
    • 10 = Bandwidth mbps, base = baseband, 2= segment length
  106. Thinwire
    • bend radius 360
    • easy instal
    • cheapest
    • suseptable to eavesdroping
    • Middle for interfearence
  107. Thickwire
    • Bend radius 30
    • hard to install
    • More expensive 
    • Interfearence lowest of all cables
  108. Twisted Pair
    • Used in LANS
    • STP: shielded twisted pair for electronicall noisy environments
    • UTP: Unshielded twisted wher 10BaseT = T means UTP
  109. Fiber Optics
    • SMall glass or plastic core
    • In core, light hits and refracts instead of going out and makes 1 and 0
  110. Multimode
    • uses LED's plastic core
    • Longer distance higher bandwidth
    • 0 suseptbility to EM, no interfearence and no evesdroping
    • For shorter distanc
  111. Single Mode
    • Uses laser
    • Uses glass and allows for signal to last long distance 
    • Up to 100 KM
  112. Eithernet
    • LAN standard
    • 802.3 IDDD is bases for standard
  113. Bit level sync
    • Enbed clock in signal
    • It waits on amount of time when listens which is bit synce
  114. Frame level Sync
    • Sends AAAAAAB tells this is tart of frame and means you start listening
    • 7 A's is Preamble
    • B is sof (start of frame)
  115. Ethernet frame
    • <= o5DC then 802.3
    • > o5DC the V2
  116. CSMA/CD
    • Carrier sense multiple access collision detection
    • Can'g guarantee access
  117. Collision domain
    List of all nodes competing with eachother and connected to a hug
  118. Bridges
    • Operate at layer 2 or OSI
    • Bridge table has prort and mack
    • Only bridge 2 LANS
    • Bridges and switches seperate collision domain
  119. Class Licenses
    • Standard Authority IANA
    • First bit Class A: 1.0 - 126.0 with 2^32
    • Frist 2 bit Class B: 128.0 - 191.255 with 65000
    • First 3 bit Class C: 192.0 - 223.255.255 with 254
  120. Speical IP address
    • loopback is localhost
    • Test nic to send and recieve packets to itslef
  121. Private IPS
    • Class A - 10.o.o.o
    • Class B -
    • Class C -
  122. IPV-6
    • More bits allaocated with 128 bits
    • 48 bits routing prefix, 16 subnet, 64 identifier
    • Every 4 hex seperated by :
  123. Domain name
    • Transles to IP first
  124. DNS
    only exists to translate do,main name to IP address