Biology Exam 2

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ArtisticXplozion
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198661
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Biology Exam 2
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2013-02-14 20:54:24
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  1. What is a specialized dendrites or specialized cells (in close contact with neurons) that detect changes/ stimuli in the external or internal environment?
    Sensory Receptors
  2. What detect stimuli outside the body (heat, light, pressure, chemicals)?
    Exteroceptors
  3. What detect stimuli within the body (blood pressure, muscle tension, blood CO2, body posture)?
    Interoceptors
  4. What is a diminishing response to a maintained or repeated stimulation?
    Adaptation
  5. What is a strengthening of a stimulus or signal?
    Amplification
  6. What is a conduction of signal to the CNS?
    Transmission
  7. What is a interpretation of sensory signal?
    Integration
  8. What type of Sensory Receptors transduce specific chemical compounds?
    Chemicalreceptors
  9. What are the two types of Chemicalreceptors?
    • Olfactory (smell)
    • Gustatory (taste)
  10. What type of chemicalreceptor is a chemical signal diffused in the air that triggers a natural behavioral response between members of the same species?
    Pheromones
  11. What type of chemicalreceptor is neurons embedded in a layer of epithelial tissue in the upper nasal cavity?
    Olfaction
  12. What type of chemicalreceptor is a paired tubular structural organ that is embedded in the nasal epithelium of amphibians, reptiles, and many mammals?
    Vomeronasal Organ (VNO)
  13. What type of chemicalreceptor is a detection of chemicals present in a solution with chemoreceptor clusters called "taste buds"?
    Gustation (taste)
  14. What type of chemicalreceptor is concentrated in taste buds of tongue and mouth?
    Terrestrial Vertebrate Chemorecptors
  15. What type of chemicalreceptor is located in gustatory sensillae (hairs) on feet and mouthparts?
    Invertebrate chemoreceptors
  16. What type of sensory receptor responds to physical distortion of a mechanoreceptor's plasma membrane?
    Mechanoreceptor
  17. Mechanoreceptor system along both sides of most fishes and aquatic amphibians?
    Lateral Line
  18. What contains the Organ of Corti?
    Inner ear (cochlea)
  19. What part of the ear contains the hair cells?
    Cochlea
  20. What interprets equilibrium info?
    Cerebellum and Brain Stem
  21. What type of receptor are dentrites of certain sensory neurons whose stimulation is perceived as pain?
    Nociceptors (Pain Receptors)
  22. What type of sensory receptor responds to heat and cold?
    Thermoreceptors
  23. What type of sensory receptor transduce various forms of electromagnetic energy?
    Electromagnetic receptors
  24. What type of electromagnetic receptor is visible light?
    Photoreceptor
  25. What part of the invertebrate photoreceptor detects light intensity and direction?
    eye cup
  26. What part of the invertebrate photoreceptor is the image forming eye composed of man ommatidia; detects color and ultraviolet radiation; forms a mosaic image; acute at detecting movement?
    Compound Eye
  27. What part of the invertebrate photoreceptor is camera-like in function; rods and cones are receptors?
    Image forming eyes
  28. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor transparent structure where light enters?
    Cornea
  29. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor is pigmented area below the cornea that gives the eye its color?
    Iris
  30. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor is the central part of opening of the iris?
    Pupil
  31. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor adjusts images on the retina?
    Lens
  32. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor contains rods and cones?
    Retina
  33. Which colors do rods allow us to see?
    Black and White
  34. What colors do cones allow us to see?
    Colors
  35. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor is the transparent 3rd eyelid that can be drawn across the eye for protection and to moisten the eye while also keeping visibility?
    Nicitating Membrane
  36. What type of vertebrate photoreceptor lies immediately behind or sometimes within the retina which allows the light reflects back through the retina allowing for visibility during the dark?
    Tapetum Lucidum
  37. Which of the following statements about sensory cells is false?

    A. Mechanoreceptors detect stimuli that distort membranes
    B. Chemoreceptors monitor aspects of the internal environment
    C. Chemocreceptors are involved in smell, taste, and hearing
    D. Photoreceptors exhibit a conformational change when stimulated by light
    E. Most chemoreceptors are metabotropic receptors
    C
  38. Which of the following statements about human gustation is false?

    A. Taste bud cells are relatively short lived because of the high degree of abrasion they encounter
    B. Taste buds are cofined to the oral cavity
    C. Changes in the membrane potential of the taste bud sensory cells cause them to release neurotransmitter onto the dendrites of sensory neurons
    D. Humans perceive only three categories of tastes: sweet, sour and bitter
    E. Most taste buds are found on the papillae of the tongue
    D
  39. Diet that is chronically deficient in calories
    Undernourished
  40. A diet lacking one or more essential nutrients
    malnourished
  41. absorb nutrients from dead organic matter
    Decomposers/Sabrobes
  42. feed on dead organic material
    Detritivores
  43. Length of Alimentary Canal in herbivores and omnivores
    long relative to body size
  44. length of alimentary canal in carnivores
    short relative to body size
  45. A carnivore has what kind of dentition?
    pointed incisors and canines
  46. A omnivore has what kind of dentition?
    unspecialized
  47. Act of eating
    Ingestion
  48. Process of breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed
    Digestion
  49. 1 opening that acts as both mouth and anus
    Gastrovascular Cavity
  50. Gastrovascular cavity has what kind of digestion?
    Intracellular digestion
  51. 2 openings; 1 direction
    Alimentary canal
  52. alimentary canal has what kind of canal?
    extracellular digestion
  53. Digestion that takes place within the cytoplasm of the organism
    intracellular digestion
  54. Digestion that takes place outside the cell in digestive system spaces?
    Extracellular digestion
  55. Animal cells take up small molecules from the digestive compartment
    absorption
  56. undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment
    elimination
  57. Ionotropic sensory receptor proteins are either _____________ themselves or directly afttect the opening of an ______________.
    Ion Channel
  58. Change in the resting membrane potential of a sensory receptor cell in response to a stimulus
    Receptor Potential
  59. True or False: All sensory systems process information in the form of action potentials.
    True
  60. Molecule that activates an olfactory receptor protein
    Odorant

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