DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, Meiosis
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What are the nitrogen base pairs for DNA and RNA?
- DNA base pairs: RNA base pairs:
- Adenine =Thymine Adenine = Uracil
- Guanine =Cytosine Guanine = Cytosine
What are the components of DNA?
How many chromosomes do we have?
Stages of the cell cycle
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Stages of the cell cycle for mitosis: cell division
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Three phases: G1, S, G2 then Mitosis begins(Cell Division)
- G1-Cell growth, organelle duplication, and protein synthesis
- S- DNA Replication occurs, histone synthesis
- G2- finishes protein synthesis and centriole replication
- DNA condenses
- Chromosomes appear to become visible
- Centriole move to opposite ends of the cell as microtubules raidate out from the centriol
- Microtubules then attach to the centrome of the chormosome to pull them to oppsite ends
- Lastly the nuclear membrane breaks down
- The replicated chromosomes line up on the equator by the attached microtubules.
- The chromatides of each chromosome pair seperate by the microtubules pulling at the centrome to opposite ends
- The nuclear envelope redevelops and the chromosomes uncondense.
- Cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and the daughter cells are produced.
What are the GO signals for cell division?
- -Volume of cell when area of membrane is inadequate for exchange.
- -Chemicals (e.g.growth factors, hormones, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)).
What are the Stop signals for cell division?
- Contact inhibition
- Growth-inhibiting factors produced by repressor genes
- Worn out telomeres (ends of chromosomes)
How does DNA replicate to for two new genetically identical daughter cells?
- DNA strands of a chromosome unwind by the enzyme helicase and separate.
- DNA polymerases attach complementary nucleotides to each side of the DNA strand
- It catalyzes hydrogen bond formation between nucleotides
- This results in two exact copies of one chromosome that are identical
- to each other
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