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-frequency measured in waves per second, or Hertz Hz
Pitch is the ______ of sound waves.
The basilar membrane is "tuned" to vibrate the most at a certain frequency
-near helicotrema: low pitch
-near oval window: high pitch
A small patch of hair cells code for a particular frequency, this is called
place coding because a place on the basilar membrane codes for each pitch
Surprisingly, the only place in the brain that calculates the location of sounds is the ______ _____ ______, in the medulla where microsecond differences in the arrival of sound between the two ears are used to determine the source of sounds.
superior olivary nucleus.
Auditory Pathways to Brain
1. Cranial Nerve VIII
4. Auditory cortices in temporal lobe
Vestibular sense is the sense of
Static Equilibrium (linear acceleration) is used to
measure head tilt.
Dynamic Equilibrium (angular acceleration) is used to
measure head rotation
Static equilibrium, or head tilt, is coded in receptive organs called
Maculae are found in two enlargements of the semicircular canals, the
utricle and saccule
Inner Ear Structures:
Semicircular Canals (balance)
Anterior; posterior; lateral
The ____ and _____ are at the junction between the semicircular canals and cochlea. Like the spiral organ, these contain_____ _____.
utricle; saccule; hair cells
Hairs embedded in gelationous otolith membrane with otoliths on top.
-otoliths are crystals of CaCO3
-otoliths side when head is tilted, and move hairs underneath
There are three semicircular canals, one for each
possible plane of head rotation
As the head swivels, fluid in semicircular canals sloshes around and activates hair cells in
As the signal from the vestibular apparatus is sent to the brain, the cerebellum calculates a
compensatory eye movement
Eyes move in a characteristic flicking pattern called
The _______ system makes an important contribution to the sense of balance and body position in space
Vestibular Pathways to Brain:
There is integration with other somatic senses
-cell bodies of 1 degree afferents in vestibular ganglion
-4 vestibular nuclei in pons and medulla
-relay in ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus
-cortical representation in somatosensory cortex