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Secondary active transport
Energy stored in ion gradient can drive transport systems. Does not utilize ATP.
One molecule moving across membrane.
One molecule and one ion moving across the membrane.
One molecule and one ion moving in different directions across membrane.
Hypothetical scheme fro evolution of nucleus
1. DNA bound to inner membrane.
2. Membrane folds in and encompasses DNA.
3. A double membrane is formed.
Hypothetical scheme for origin of mitochondria and plastids
1. Aerobic prokaryotic cell comes close to eukaryotic cell.
2. Membrane engulfs prokaryotic cell.
3. Mitochondria has two membranes now.
Cytosol is a ______ environment.
Outside of cell is an ______ environment.
Blobel's in vitro translocation
1. Tubes with radiolabelled amino acids, mRNA encoding secretory protein, and one with and without microsomes.
2. Added protease to each tube and saw that the one without microsome had its protein destroyed.
Signal for transport/import of proteins into ER
10-20 hydrophobic amino acids
Signal Recognition Particle
Binds to working ribosome and connects it to ER membrane. Once ribosome has been connected it SRP gets displaced.
Protein on ER membrane. 3-4 protein complex acting as pore for ribosome protein entrance.
ER protein entrance, transport type, evolution scheme