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Formed by integral membrane proteins and are selective for certain ions.
Gated ion channel
1. Voltage gated
2. Extracellular/intracellular ligand
3. Mechanically gated
Patch clamp method
Method to measure current in cell. Use micropipette to pull away a piece of membrane and use electrodes to measure.
Shield charge of transported ion so it can penetrate the lipid bilayer.
Usually antibiotics made by bacteria that increase permeability of membranes to certain inorganic ions.
Molecules flow energetically favorable fashion down energy gradient.
Goes against concentration or electrochemical gradient and requires energy.
Primary active transport
Dependent on direct hydrolysis of ATP.