Final Exam Metabolism

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Final Exam Metabolism
2010-05-19 15:10:27
Final Exam Metabolism

Final Exam Metabolism
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  1. When do the absorptive and postabsorptive states occur?
    • absorptive - first 2-4 hours after eating
    • postabsorptive - everything after those first 2-4 hours

    (most questions on final will be on absorptive)
  2. What is going on during the absorptive state?
    • Nutrient absorption Building tissues - (increase uptake of amino acids and protein production)
    • Increased use of glucose as energy - (increased uptake and use of glucose)
  3. Function of carbohydrates
    • Major energy source
    • (Glycolysis breaks down glucose, which breaks down pryuvate to go into the TCA cycle --> glucose production)
  4. Function of proteins
    Building blocks of body
  5. Function of lipids
    • Concentrated energy source
    • Storage of energy
  6. Transamination is what?
    • Taking the amino group off an amino acid and attaching it to the keto acid (which become an amino acid)
    • The new amino acid is ready for protein synthesis
    • The origional amino acid become a keto acid and can be broken down inthe TCA cycle

    One method of animo acid catabolism (breakdown)
  7. Deamination is what?
    • Removing amino group and hydrogen atom from an amino acid
    • Prepares amino acid for breakdown in TCA cycle
  8. What is an essential nutrient?
    A nutrient needed by the body that can not be made by the body

    Ex: Cholesterol is not and essential nutrient because (though we need it) the body can make enough for the body to function
  9. What is glycolysis? Where does it occur?
    • Breaking down glucose
    • Occurs in cytosol
  10. Is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic?
    Anaerobic (do not need O2)
  11. Glycolysis is important because:
    A. it builds glucose stores
    B. it is a major energy source
    C. it provides electrons for the TCA cycle
    d. all of the above
    B. it is a major energy source
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Citric Acid Cycle / TCA Cycle:
    What are the end products?
    • Water
    • Energy
    • CO2
  13. Citric Acid Cycle / TCA Cycle:
    What goes into the TCA cycle?
    2 carbon units - Acetyl-CoA

    • (The three carbon pyruvic acid from glycolysis is turned into the two carbon Acetyl-CoA which enters the TCA cycle)
  14. Citric Acid Cycle / TCA Cycle:
    Where does it occur?
    a. cytoplasm
    b. cristae of innermembrane
    c. matrix of cytoplasm
    c. matrix of the mitchondria
  15. What carries the energy from the citric acid cycle/TCA cycle to the Electron Transport Sustem.
    NAD, FAD (in thier NADH and FADH2 forms)
  16. Which part of aerobic metabolism yeilds the most ATP
    a. Glycolysis
    b. Citric acid cycle/TCA cycle
    c. ETS
  17. Describe what happens to the H+ and e- in the ETS
    • They are carried over on FADH2 and NADH and released
    • The hydrogen ions are released
    • The electrons are passed the coenzymes, losing energy in small steps along the way
    • At the end of the cycle, the electrons bind to oxygen, which then combines with H+ to form water

    End products: ATP and H2O
  18. The ETS is the key reaction in ___________
    a. phosphorylation
    b. the latent period
    c. glycogenolosis
  19. The post-absorptive state is glucose using or glucose sparing?
    Glucose sparing
  20. How does the body get energy during the post-absorptive phase?
    • Glyconeogenesis of fat in the liver.
    • Body doesn't like to use protein. And it spares the glucose.
  21. What does cortisol do?
    a. break down amino acids
    b. break down carbohydrates
    c. break down fat
    Break down fats- for glyconeogenesis when energy reserve must be called upon
  22. During exercise, what acts a lot like cortisol by keeping glycolysis and glyconeogenesis rates high?
    a. E
    b. NE
    c. CCK
  23. What is gluconeogenesis? What stage does it occur during?
    • Making glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (such as amino acids or triglycerides)
    • Post-absorptive state
  24. What is lipolysis? What stage does it occur during?
    • Breaking down lipids for energy (Lipid catabolism)
    • The pieces are converted to pyruvic acid for the TCA cycle

    During the post-absorptive state
  25. What is lipogenesis? What stage does it occur during?
    Formation of lipids (primarily as triglycerides) for storage
  26. What is glycogenolysis? What stage does it occur during?
    • Process of breaking down glycogen to get glucose
    • In the post-absorptive state
  27. Insulin
    a. increases glycogenesis
    b. increases lipogenesis
    c. acts during the absorptive state
    d. all of the above
    all of the above

    (basically increases uptake and formation of everything - glucose, lipids, amino acids, etc)
  28. Glucocorticoids do not:
    A. increase reliance on ketone bodies and fatty acids
    B. decrease the use of glucose
    C. increase fatty acid catabolism
    C. increase fatty acid catabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Epinephrine has what effect on glycolysis?
    Increases it