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What are the four categories of organic chemicals?
- Carbohydrates-major source of energy
- Nucleic Acids
What is the dehydration synthesis? loss of H2O
What is the hydrolysis reaction? add of H2O
What are monosaccharides?
- They are simple sugars
- ex: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose
what are disaccharides?
- They are two monosaccharide sugars together by dehydration sysnthesis:
What are polysaccharides?
They are three or more monosaccharides formes by dehydration synthesis.
What is the storage form of glucose in animal and where is it stored at?
Gylcogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle.
What is the storage form og glucose in plants and where is it stored at?
Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants and is stored in the roots.
Four types of lipids?
- Triglycerides- burns hydrocarbon for energy
How are lipids transported into the blood?
They are transported into the blood by lipoproteins
What are the transport proteins for triglycerides?
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) transport the triglycerides
where does VLDL drop off fat at and what does it turn into?
It drops off at adipocytes and turns into LDL (cholesterol)
What are the functions of triglycerides (fats)?
- Used as fuel and is a stored an energy reserve; attract lipid-soluble vitamins
- Used as insulation so you lose less heat to environment
- Protects internal organs
What are the essential fatty acids?
Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential fatty acids. They must be obtained from the diet.
What are the functions of the essential fatty acids?
- Omega 3 helps with brain and nerve function and decrease inflammation.
- Omega 6 is associated with inflammation
Types of Fatty Acids
- Saturated- no bonds- solid @ room temp
- Unsaturated- double bonds- liq. @ room temp
Which fat is better for health reasons?
Why are trans fats bad?
- they are bad because their not found in nature
- the conformation of it attachs to artery walls.
Phospholipids VS Glycolipids
What is the function of glycolipids and phosolipids?
They are structural components of plasma membrans
What is the function of esicsanoids?
- they are chemical messengers coordinating local cell activity.
- (autocrine and paracrine) for inflamation and immunity
What does Cholesterol (Steroid) do?
It is a component of plasma (cell) membranes and aids with fluidity obtain from diet or synthesize in body.
What is the function of Corticosteroids and calcitriol
they regulate metabolic function
LDL VS HDL
LDL(bad) are high in cholesterol and low in protein
- -HDL (good) contain more protein that cholesterol. They scavenge excess cholesterol from the body and return it to the liver.
- -LDL/HDL ratio is rate at which cholesterol leaves the cells and returns to the liver.
- cholesterol ratio (LDL:HDL)
- <200 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
- >60 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
- <100 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
- <150 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
What is the function of proteins?
- -Regulation of pH
- Metabolic regulation
- Coordination and control
- -Structural proteins
- -Contractile proteins
- -Transport (carrier) proteins lipoproteins
what is the primary structure of proteins?
The sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide
What is the secondary structure?
a-helix or b-pleated sheet
What is the structure of the tertiary and quaternary structure?
What are the structural class of proteins?
Fibrous and globular
What two factors is protein shape and function based on?
- Protein function is based on shape
- Shape is based on sequence of amino acids
How do enzymes work?
- They decrease the activation
- energy of the reaction
- Activation energy– the energy required to start a chemical reaction.
How do you inactivated enzymes?
Induced fit – a shape change in the enzyme in response to substrate binding
How to denature proteins?
Heat and PH
Function of DNA
- Duplicate DNA for cell division OR
- Use as a “template” for protein synthesis
- Stores genetic info
- Controls enzyme production
FAD and NAD
- Transfers energy
- electron carriers in metabolism
used in the cell as a secondary messenger system for outside communication inside the cell
What are two vitamins we cant synthesize and how do we synthesize them?
- Vitamins D and K
- Vitamin D: need sunlight in order to make it or drink milk
- Vitamin D deficiency disrupts Ca+2 absorption in intestine and bone growth
- Vitamin K is required for proper blood clotting
- It is not produced by human cells but
- comes from bacteria living in our large intestine and green-leafy vegetables
can be dissolved in plasma and excreted through urine
- not soluble in water
- Hydrophobic vitamins (A, D, E and K) are stored in our body fat
- It is possible to have an excess of these fat-soluble vitamins in body tissues; this can result in