Biological Macromolecules

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Author:
crazylilstr
ID:
198727
Filename:
Biological Macromolecules
Updated:
2013-02-07 23:25:29
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Bio
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Description:
Cell structure and function
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  1. What are the four categories of organic chemicals?
    • Carbohydrates-major source of energy
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  2. What is the dehydration synthesis? loss of H2O
    What is the hydrolysis reaction? add of H2O
  3. What are monosaccharides?
    • They are simple sugars
    • ex: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose
  4. what are disaccharides?
    • They are two monosaccharide sugars together by dehydration sysnthesis:
    • Sucrose=glu+fru
    • Maltose=glu+glu
    • Lactose=glu+gal
  5. What are polysaccharides?
    They are three or more monosaccharides formes by dehydration synthesis.
  6. What is the storage form of glucose in animal and where is it stored at?
    Gylcogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle.
  7. What is the storage form og glucose in plants and where is it stored at?
    Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants and is stored in the roots.
  8. Simple vs Complex sugars
  9. Four types of lipids?
    • Triglycerides- burns hydrocarbon for energy
    • phospholipid
    • Eicosanoid
    • steriods
  10. How are lipids transported into the blood?
    They are transported into the blood by lipoproteins
  11. What are the transport proteins for triglycerides?
    Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) transport the triglycerides
  12. where does VLDL drop off fat at and what does it turn into?
    It drops off at adipocytes and turns into LDL (cholesterol)
  13. What are the functions of triglycerides (fats)?
    • Used as fuel and is a stored an energy reserve; attract lipid-soluble vitamins
    • Used as insulation so you lose less heat to environment
    • Protects internal organs
  14. What are the essential fatty acids?
    Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential fatty acids. They must be obtained from the diet.
  15. What are the functions of the essential fatty acids?
    • Omega 3 helps with brain and nerve function and decrease inflammation.
    • Omega 6 is associated with inflammation
  16. Types of Fatty Acids
    • Saturated- no bonds- solid @ room temp
    • Unsaturated- double bonds- liq. @ room temp
    •    monounsaturated
    •    polyunsaturated
  17. Which fat is better for health reasons?
    Unsaturated fat
  18. Why are trans fats bad?
    • they are bad because their not found in nature
    • the conformation of it attachs to artery walls.
  19. Phospholipids VS Glycolipids
  20.  What is the function of glycolipids and phosolipids?
    They are structural components of plasma membrans
  21. What is the function of esicsanoids?
    • they are chemical messengers coordinating local cell activity.
    • (autocrine and paracrine) for inflamation and immunity
  22. What does Cholesterol (Steroid) do?
    It is a component of plasma (cell) membranes and aids with fluidity obtain from diet or synthesize in body.
  23. What is the function of Corticosteroids and calcitriol
    they regulate metabolic function
  24. LDL VS HDL
    LDL(bad) are high in cholesterol and low in protein

    • -HDL (good) contain more protein that cholesterol. They scavenge excess cholesterol from the body and return it to the liver.
    • -LDL/HDL ratio is rate at which cholesterol leaves the cells and returns to the liver.
    • •Total
    • cholesterol ratio (LDL:HDL)
    •          <200 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
    • •HDL
    • >60 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
    • •LDL
    • <100 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
  25. Triglycerides level
    • •Triglycerides
    • <150 mg/ 100 ml of plasma
  26. What is the function of proteins?
    • Buffering
    •    -Regulation of pH
    • Metabolic regulation
    •    -Enzymes
    • Coordination and control
    •    -Hormones
    • Defense
    •    -Antibodies
    • Support
    •    -Structural proteins
    • Movement
    •    -Contractile proteins
    • Transport 
    •    -Transport (carrier) proteins lipoproteins
  27. what is the primary structure of proteins?
    The sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide

  28. What is the secondary structure?
    a-helix or b-pleated sheet
  29. What is the structure of the tertiary and quaternary structure?
  30. What are the structural class of proteins?
    Fibrous and globular
  31. What two factors is protein shape and function based on?
    • Protein function is based on shape
    • Shape is based on sequence of amino acids
  32. How do enzymes work?
    • They decrease the activation
    • energy of the reaction
    • Activation energy– the energy required to start a chemical reaction.
  33. How do you inactivated enzymes?
    Induced fit – a shape change in the enzyme in response to substrate binding
  34. How to denature proteins?
    Heat and PH
  35. Function of DNA
    • Duplicate DNA for cell division OR
    • Use as a “template” for protein synthesis
    • Stores genetic info
    • Controls enzyme production
  36. FAD and NAD
    • Transfers energy
    • electron carriers in metabolism
  37. cAMP
    used in the cell as a secondary messenger system for outside communication inside the cell
  38. What are two vitamins we cant synthesize and how do we synthesize them?
    • Vitamins D and K
    • Vitamin D: need sunlight in order to make it or drink milk
    • Vitamin D deficiency disrupts Ca+2 absorption in intestine and bone growth
    • Vitamin K is required for proper blood clotting
    • It is not produced by human cells but
    • comes from bacteria living in our large intestine and green-leafy vegetables
  39. Hydrophilic vitamins
    can be dissolved in plasma and excreted through urine
  40. Hydrophobic vitamins
    • not soluble in water
    • Hydrophobic vitamins (A, D, E and K) are stored in our body fat
    • It is possible to have an excess of these fat-soluble vitamins in body tissues; this can result in
    • toxicity

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