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What cancer am I ?
Most commoon in younger women
Affects women of lower socioeconomic status
Early sexual activity, multiple partners,
multiple pelvic infections, smoking
___ cancer incidence is higher in wives of men with penile cancer
Women whose mothers used DES during early months of pregnancy are more likely to develop ____ cancer
Because of PAP smears _____ of cancers are diagnosised in non-invasive stages
What Cancer am I?
Has increased over the past few years
high-calorie diet & high fat diets
use of estrogen in the 60's & 70's
peak age is 58
Diabetes & hypertension
Prolong estrogen use (HRT)
Women who are 50lbs over weight have a ___ times increase in risk of developing ___ cancer
___ & ___ cancers are rare & occur in older women
Vaginal & Vulva
Vulva cancer is ___ times more common then vaginal & is associated with diabetes & STD's
****Vulva cancers are also associated with changes in normal vaginal lining, loss of hormone stimulation, and poor hygeine
**** Vaginal cancer is also related to DES use while in utero.
What cancer am I?
occurs between ages 50 & 70
Risk factors include:
late or few pregnancies
lack of oral contraceptives
family history of ovarian cancer
personal history of breast, colon, or endometrial cancer
diets high in meat or animal fat
What cancer am I?
Slow progressive disease
increased menstrual bleeding
discomfort with intercourse
Maloderous discharge, pelvis pain, and urinary or rectal symtoms may accompany more advance disease
List the lymph nodes involved in cervical cancer
- They are normally in order:
- para cervical (around the cervix)
- para metrial (around the uterus)
- common iliac
- and even SVC nodes
Cervical cancer affects in Direct extension
- superior = uterus
- inferior = vagina
- anteriorly = bladder
- posteriorly = rectum
where does hematogenous spread of cervical cancer go?
Lungs, bone & liver
In detecting & diagnosis what are the classes of PAP Smear
- Class I - normal
- Class II - atyical (not cancerous, but starting to change)
- Class III - dyspalsia
- Class IV - carcinoma in situ (starts cancer)
- Class V - Invasive cacinoma
What are some methods of detection & diagnosis of Cervical Cancer?
H&P, including pellvic & rectal exams, CT, MRI, PET, cystoscopy and proctoscopy are used to assess metastatic disease.
What is most common pathology of Cervical Cancer?
Most cervical lesions are in the ___ lip of the cervix
What is the most common symptom of cervical Cancer?
Describe Point A
- 2cm superior of the external os
- 2 cm lateral of the external os
Describe Point B
- 2 cm superior of the external os
- 5cm lateral of the external os
Point A is associated with dose to _____.
Point B is assocaited with dose to ____.
Tamdum is inserted into the ____.
Ovoids lie in the ____ ____ or each side of the cervix.
Radiation fields for cervical Ca.
Whole pelvis is treated with a:
4 field box
___ cancer is the most deadliest of all GYN cancers and has few symtoms until it is widely disseminated.
Most common symptoms of cervical cancer is:
abdominal/pelvic pain, ascites, abdominal distention, or GI symptoms (n/v, constipation, heartburn)
Most common age for ovarian cancer
___ marker is a useful prognostic indicator
In ovarian cancer blood spread is to the ____ & ____ and ovarian tumors can also seed into the abdomen.
liver & lungs
Ovarian cancer does not have a huge role in radiation therapy. It is mainly for pallative treatment
Pathology of ovarian cancer is 90% _____
Treatment choice for ovarian cancer is
surgury & chemotherapy
Ovarian cancer overall 5 year survival is _____%
What are the most common symptoms of endometrial (uterus) cancer the leads to early detection?
vaginal bleeding & discharge
What are some examples of poor prognosis of Endometrial Cancer?
- higher grade
- increased depth of invasion
- lymph node involvement
- cancer cells inthe peritonal fluid (abd fluid)
Enndometrial cancer lymph spread is to the ___ & ____.
Internal & external iliacs
Endometrial cancer blood spread is to the ___ & ____
lung & bone
What is the most common histology of endometrial cancer?
Overall 5 year survival for endometrial cancer is
The "stop sign field" is used for ___ & ___ cancer
cervical & endometrial
What is the most common pathology for vulvar cancer
squamous cell (below cervix)
What is the overall 5 year survival rate for vulvar cancer?
RT fields for vulvar cancer is
_____ is a super rare female cancer
___ cancers accounts for cancers that have not reached the cervix or vulva
what is the median age for vaginal cancer?
What is the most common histology for vaginal cancer
squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common location for vaginal cancer?
upper 3rd of vagina
Vaginal primar is rare mostly we see a cervical that has grew into the vagina
inguinal, upper 3rd to the iliacs
- along vaginal wall to cervix or vulva
- It may also spread to the pelvic wall, bladder & rectum.
Biopsy, H&P, blood & chemistry, urinalysis, chest x-ray, CT, and cystourethroscopy
What is the treatment choice for vaginal cancer?
Radiation Therapy (AP/PA fields)
What are some side effects from Radiaiton Therapy?
Fatigue, diarrhea, dermatitis, dysuria, n/v, anal irritation, menopause, vaginal fibrosis & dryness, bowel obstruction, dry & moist desquamation
List the 3 categories of organs in the female reproductive system
- internal accessory
- external parts
What is an example of a primary organ in the famale reproductive system
What is an example of internal accessorys in the female reproductive system?
- uterine tubes
What is an example of external parts in the female reproductive system?
- labia majora,
- labia minora,
- and vestibular glands,
- openings of the urethra, vagina & compose the vulva.
What am I ?
solid, oval structure about the size & shape of unshelled almonds.
Located onthe laterla walls of the pelvic cavity.
Lymphatic drainage goes almost exculvisely to the pperiaortic lymph nodes
What is attached to the ovary to help hold it in place?
what is located in the upper end & it is a small fold of peritoeum & contains the ovarian blood vessels and nerves.
What helps hold up the uterian tubes?
My function is to convey egg cells toward the uterus
AKA: fallopian tubes or oviducts
What am I ?
a funnel shaped that partially encircles the ovary and also has alot of irregular, branched extensions
the infundibulum is the funnel shaped part and the fimbriae are the irregular, branched extensions
What am I?
does not directly touch the ovary & the fimbriae are connected directly to it
The egg moves from the ovary down the fallopian tube by cilia, which sweeps the egg toward the uterus and muscular contractions also help it until it has reached the uterus.
What am I?
Muscular shaped organ like an inverted pear. My function is to receive the embryo & to sustain life during development.
What is the significance of the uterine pouch
helps prevent the spread of uterine cancer to the rectum