Unit 2 - A&P
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What makes up the Integumentary system?
What are the functions of the integumentary system?
- temperature regulation
- vitamin D production
How does the integumentary system protect us?
provides physical, chemical, and pathological barriers from impact, chemicals, infections, pathogens, UV light
What sort of sensory reception does our integumentary system have?
detects tactile touch, temperature, pressure, pain, vibrations, and tickling
How does our integumentary system regulate temperature?
regulates heat loss or gain, changes blood vessel diameter, allows us to sweat
How does the integumentary system produce vitamin D?
when exposed to UV light, the skin produces an inactive form of vitamin D (cholecalciferol), when activated by the kidneys/liver (calcitriol) it aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous from the GI tract
What is the function of excretion/immunity in our integumentary system?
excretes water, salts, organic wastes; innate immune protection against foreign invaders, macrophages
How does the epidermis contribute in the protective functions of the integumentary system?
- has stratified squamous keratinized epithelia
- protects against UV lights by melanin production
- lipids in epidermis reduce water loss
What is the most superficial layer of epithelial tissue?
What has 1) a deep layer of connective tissue and 2) structural strength?
Subcutaneous tissue is:
- not part of the skin
- loose connective tissue that connects skin to underlying tissue
The epidermis is composed of cells arranged into ____ or _____
The epidermis is separated from the dermis by the:
The epidermis is ________; it is nourished by diffusion from capillaries of the ______ layer of the dermis
What are keratinocytes?
most cells, produce keratin for strength
What are melanocytes?
- contribute to skin colour
- melanin produced by these cells then transfer to keratinocytes
- *same number of melanocytes in everyone
What are Langerhans' cells?
part of the immune system
What are Merkel's cells?
detect light, touch, and superficial pressure
What happens when cells desquamate?
cells of the deeper layers undergo mitosis; as they move toward the surface, older cells slough off
Which of these developed by intramembranous ossification?
True or False: The canaliculi represent microscopic channels that were formed by the blood vessels in the bone.
False. The canaliculi are small canals that were formed by the thin processes arising from the young osteoblasts.
True or False: The more collagen a bone has, the more rigid its structure.
False. Collagen protein fibers allow a bone to have a degree of flexibility; the calcium salts provide a rigidity.
The skin is called the _____ membrane.
True or False: The process of keratinization is directly related to the waterproofing function of the dermis.
- True. Keratin synthesis is a function of the stratified squamous cells of the
- epidermis and does make the layer relatively impermeable to water.
True or False: A decubitus ulcer is a bedsore caused by an infectious agent or toxic organism.
- False. Decubitus ulcers are areas of dying skin tissue which result from the
- lack of an adequate blood supply, usually caused by pressure; it is
- possible to also be infected secondarily.
The two distinct layers of skin are _____
The _____ tissue of the subcutaneous layer insulates the body
The stratum basale is nourished by _____ in the dermis
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