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What is science?
It is the study of the natural world.
What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method?
- 1) Observation
- 2) Question
- 3) Hypothesis
- 4) Experiments
- 5) Conclusion
What is a Scientific Theory? Give 3 examples of a scientific theory.
- it is a hypothesis that has never been falsified.
- 1) Cell Theory
- 2) Theory of Evolution
- 3) Sliding Filament Theory
What are the 8 Attributes of Life?
- 1) Take in and use energy
- 2) Respond to environment/stimulus
- 3) Can carry homeostasis
- 4) Possesses DNA
- 5) You can reproduce
- 6) Composed of 1 or more cells
- 7) Evolved from something else
- 8) Living cells are highly organized!
What is the Hierarchical Levels of Organization?
- Organ System
What is an atom? (Give an example of one)
it is the smallest unit of an element (Carbon)
What is a molecule? (Give an example)
it is 2 or more atoms bonded together (water H2O)
What is an organelle? (give an example)
it is tiny organs made of many molecules inside cells (nucleus)
What is a cell? (given an example)
it is a single membrane bound structure that can function independently (sperm)
What is a tissue? (give an example)
it is a group of cells that work together towards a common function (muscular)
What is an organ? (give an example)
It is a group of tissues that work together toward a common function (heart)
What is an Organ System? (give an example)
it is a group of organs that work together toward a common function (cardiovascular system)
What is an organism? (give an example)
It is a single individual composed of a collection of organ system (humans)
What is a population?
It is a group of ONE species in a given area
What is a community?
It is a group of ALL species in a given area.
What is an ecosystem?
It is a community plus all non-living elements, which the species interact with in a given area.
What is a Biosphere?
It is all the communities of the earth and the physical environment that they interact with.
What are humans (and all living animals) composed of?
Humans are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
Atoms are composed of what 3 parts?
- An electron (negative charge)
- A proton (positive charge)
- A neutron (no charge; neutral)
How many electrons can the first shell have in an atom?
It can carry only two electrons.
How many electrons can the rest of the shells (after the 1st) hold?
Each shell can hold up to eight electrons each.
What defines the element?
The proton number
If the neuron number has changed, what do we call this?
What are isotopes? (give an example)
Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass number than normal (Carbon-13)
What are the 3 Types of Chemical Bonds?
- 1) Covalent Bond
- 2) Ionic Bond
- 3) Hydrogen Bond
What is a covalent bond?
it is the sharing of electrons. (where one atom loses electrons while another atom gains them)
What is an Ionic bond?
it is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
it is an attraction between slightly positive regions and slightly negative regions of polar molecules.
What are non polar molecules? Can they mix with water? (give examples of them)
They are molecules that share electrons equally in covalent bonds. Also known as "hydrophobic" molecules. No they cannot mix with water, they are water fearing. (oils, fats, and some proteins)
What are polar molecules? Can they mix with water? (give examples of them)
They are molecules that share electrons unequally in covalent bonds. One part of the molecule is slightly (+) and one side is slightly (-). Also known as "hydrophillic" molecules. Yes they can mix with water, they are water loving.
Where can hydrogen bonds occur?
They can occur in many biologically important compounds such as water, DNA, and proteins.
What are the features of water?
- 1) Cohesion and Surface Tension
- 2) Temperature Moderation
- 3) The Solvent of Life
What is Cohesion?
It is the tendency of like molecules (of the same type) to stick together.
What is Surface Tension?
- it is when the surface of a liquid resists external forces.
- *Remember that cohesion creates surface tension.
What is Temperature Moderation?
- -When water is heated, the energy is absorbed slowly, disrupting hydrogen bonds.
- -When water is cooled, heat energy is released slowly, as hydrogen bonds are formed.
What is a solution?
It is a homogeneous mixture of a liquid solvent and one or more dissolved solutes.
What is an Aqueous Solution?
It is a solution in which water is the solvent.
What is Adhesion?
It is the tendency of unlike molecules (of different type) to stick together or to surfaces. (This creates the meniscus)
What causes water to form drops?
What creates most spherical drops?
What causes the drop to stick to the leaf?
What are cell membranes as well as detergents composed of?
- 1 polar (hydrophillic head)
- 2 non polar (hydrophobic head)
What are the 3 basic shapes that molecules can form?
- -Bilayer Sheet
What does water have equal concentrations of?
It has equal concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
Why/How does water separate?
It tends to disassociate into ions.
What is an Acid?
It is a compound that releases H+ (concentration of hydrogen) in a solution.
What is a Base?
It is a compound that accepts H+ (concentration of hydrogen) in a solution.
What is pH?
It is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration
What are buffers? and Why are the important?
- They resist pH changes, allowing the pH of a solution to remain stable.
- They are important for maintaining proper pH of biological systems.
What are hydrocarbons?
They are composed of only hydrogen and carbon.
What are Isomers? (give an example)
They are molecule with the same molecular formula but with different structures or properties. (Glucose and Fructose)
What are functional groups?
they are groups of atoms attached to the carbon skeleton of molecules.
What are the Five Main Functional Groups that are Important in the Chemistry of Life?
- 1) Carboxyl
- 2) Hydroxyl
- 3) Amino
- 4) Phosphate
- 5) Carbonyl
They are all polar
Where can Carboxyl be found?
In fatty acids and amino acids
Where can Hydroxyl be found?
in alcohols and carbohydrates
Where can Amino be found?
In amino acids
Where can phosphate be found?
in DNA and ATP
Where can Carbonyl be found?
What are macromolecules and how are they made?
They are macromolecules and they are made by linking monomers.
What are monomers?
fundamental molecular unit (they are the building blocks macromolecules)
What are polymers?
they are chains of monomers
What is Synthesizing?
building polymers using water.
What is Hydrolysis?
it is the splitting with water
What are the Four Main Classes of Biological Macromolecules?
- 1) Carbohydrates
- 2) Lipids
- 3) Proteins
- 4) Nucleic Acids
What are Carbohydrates composed of? (give an example)
- They are composed of a carbonyl and hydroxyl group.
- *-ose is how you know they are carbohydrates
What is a dissaccharide?
It is 2 monosaccharides joined
What is a polysaccharide?
It is 3 or more monosaccharides joined
What are the 4 main types of complex carbohydrates?
- 1) Starch
- 2) Glycogen
- 3) Cellulose
- 4) Chitin
What are the two functions that complex carbohydrates can have?
What does "Starch" function as? Where is it found?
- It functions as storage (long term energy storage)
- Found in plant roots and seeds
What does "Glycogen" functions as? Where is it found?
- It functions as storage (short therm energy storage)
- Found in animal muscle and the liver
What does "Cellulose" function as? Where is it found?
- It functions as structure.
- It is found in plant cell walls.
What does "Chitin" function as? Where is it found?
- It functions as structure
- It is found in Arthropods exoskeletons (insects and crustaceans) and cell wall of fungi.
- *Anything that crunches when you step on it.
What are lipids composed of?
- They are composed of mainly carbon and hydrogen.
- Polymers of 1 glycerol and usually 3 fatty acids (the building blocks)
What do Fats (Triglycerides) do? Are they solid or liquid at room temperature?
- They store over two times the energy as carbohydrates and proteins.
- They are solid at room temperature
What do Saturated Fats contain?
the maxium number of hydrogens; saturated with H.
What to Unsaturated Fats contain? Are they liquid or solid at room temperature?
- less than the maximum possible hydrogens.
- They are liquid at room temperature.
What are the 3 Types of Unsaturated Fats?
- Monounsaturated bond
- Polyunsaturated fats
- Unsaturated Fats
What does a monounsaturated bond contain?
one double bond between the carbon atoms which causes a "kink" in the fatty acid chain.
What do Polyunsaturated fats have?
Have more than one double bonded carbon
Why are unsaturated fats good for you? Where are they found?
- They are good for you because they have cardiovascular benefits. (Do not clog your arteries!)
- Can be found in omega fats in fish, plants, and plant oils.
Why are Hydrogenated fats considered "bad fat?"
- Trans-fats are not metabolized normally!
- Increases LDL (low-density lipoprotein) the "bad" cholesterol
- Leads to cardiovascular disease
What is hydrogenation? Why is it done?
- it is the adding of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats
- It makes them saturated and solid at room temperature which increases the shelf time.
What are phospholipids?
- They are lipids with two fatty acids and one phosphate group.
- They are soluble in both water and oil.
What does wax consist of?
It consists of a single fatty acid linked to an alcohol.
What are proteins?
They are polymers of amino acid monomers (remember monomers are the building blocks)
What are Peptide bonds?
covalent bonds between amino acids
What are dipeptides?
They are 2 amino acids long
What are polypeptides?
3 or more amino acids long
What does each amino acid contain?
- A central carbon
- An amino group
- A carboxyl group
- A hydrogen atom
- One of 20 "R" Groups
How to Carboxyl and amino groups bond covalently? What do they form?
- Through dehydration synthesis
- They from a peptide bond
What are the four levels that determine shape in the structure of proteins?
- Primary Structure
- Secondary Structure
- Tertiary Structure
- Quaternary Structure
What is the primary structure in proteins?
the unique sequence of amino acids.
What can the shape of the secondary structure in proteins be (3)? How are they stabilized?
- 1) Alpha Helix-coiled chain
- 2) Pleated Sheet-folded chain
- 3) Random coils
- They are stabilized by hydrogen bond
What is the tertiary structure in proteins?
the overall three-dimensional shape of the polypeptide.
Where is collagen found in? What type of structure does this protein have?
- It is found in skin, tendons, ligaments, and bone.
- It is a quaternary structure
What is denaturation? Why is it beneficial?
- It is the chemical or physical change that causes proteins to lose their shape and function.
- It is beneficial because it makes food safe; breaks down the molecules.
What are the 7 major classes of Proteins?
- 1) Structural-cartilage, hair, cell, cystoskeletons
- 2)Contractile-produce movement in muscle and other cells
- 3) Storage-of amino acids, such as egg whites
- 4) Protection and Defense-collagen in skin; antibodies
- 5) Transport-carrier molecules such as hemoglobin
- 6) Signaling-messengers (act like name tags) such as hormones, cell receptors
- 7) Enzymes-regulate of the speed biochemical reactions
What is a nucleic acid? How are they formed?
- polymer of nucleotide monomers
- They are formed by dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, which creates a sugar-phosphate backbone.
What are the two types of Nucleic Acid?
RNA and DNA
What are nucleotides composed of?
- A five carbon sugar----ribose
- A phosphate group
- A nitrogenous base