Pharmacology Test 5

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Author:
mel26704
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198829
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Pharmacology Test 5
Updated:
2013-02-11 08:43:56
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pharm test
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Lessons 5&6
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  1. What is the study of drugs and their actions within/upon living things
    pharmacology
  2. Means of treating/preventing an illness; combo therapy is the best:
    therapeutic methods
  3. What is a chemical substance that has effect on living tissues?
    drug
  4. What are examples of meds derived from plant sources?
    • opiates: from white poppy plant
    • Digitalis: from leaves of purple foxglove flower
  5. What are examples of meds derived from animal sources?
    insulin & thyroid hormones from pigs/cattle
  6. The generic name is the:
    simple, common name
  7. The official name is the:
    name of drug as listed by the FDA
  8. The brand name is the:
    • name given to drug by the manufacturer
    • capitalize the first letter
  9. What is the difference between a drug and a medicine?
    • Drug:  chemical substance that has an effect on living tissues
    • Medicine:  therapeutic drug used in prevention/tx of disease
  10. What is the therapeutic method that uses tx with medications?
    drug therapy
  11. What is the therapeutic method that uses tx by manipulation of diet?
    diet therapy
  12. What is the therapeutic method that uses tx with natural resources?
    physiotherapy
  13. What is the therapeutic method that uses tx by identifying stressors and stress reduction techniques?
    psychological therapy
  14. -Provides standards for identity, quality, strength, and purity
    -Single volume
    US Pharmacopeia & the National Formula
  15. -Lists all medications available in US
    -Most useful for quick comparison of brand & generic names & checking availability of strengths & dosage forms
    American Drug Index
  16. -Most useful for drug interactions
    Drug Interaction Facts
  17. -Loose-leaf book w/ 15 ch.
    -Most useful for its inclusion of the most current FDA-approved package insert info & for cross-comparison tables of similar drugs
    Drug Facts & Comparisons
  18. -Most comprehensive book on nonprescription drugs; 3 major advantages:  Includes questions to ask pts to determine if tx is needed, product selection guidelines, and pt teaching info
    Handbook of nonprescription drugs
  19. -Comprehensive text for info on drugs in current use throughout the world, including herbs
    Martindale--The Complete Drug Reference
  20. -has MEDWATCH; voluntary FDA program for the reporting of drug a/e by healthcare professionals
    -5 main sections include:
    • Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
    • 1.  Gray; Manufacturers' Index
    • 2.  White; Brand/Generic Name Index
    • 3.  Gray; Product Category Index
    • 4.  Gray; Product ID
    • 5.  White; Product Info

    • My silly way of remembering it:
    • 1.  Grandma Mary
    • 2.  Will Bake
    • 3.  Gary's Pineapple Cake and
    • 4.  Gooseberry Pie
    • 5.  While Partially Intoxicated
  21. -Concise, compact, & readily available on nursing units; source used most frequently by nurses
    Nursing Drug Handbook
  22. This began federal legislation; concerned with the purity of food, designated national standards for drugs, and empowered federal government to enforce regulations.
    Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
  23. This amendment tightened control by restricting refilling of prescription meds.
    1952- Durham-Humphrey Amendment
  24. This amendment was passed as a result of thalidomide tragedies and increased importance of clinical testing of drugs and control of distribution of drugs.
    1962- Kefauver-Harris Amendment
  25. -First narcotic control act
    -Regulated import, manufacture, sale, and use of all opiates and related substances
    -Denoted many habit-forming drugs as "narcotics"
    Harrison Narcotic Act
  26. -Established five schedules (classes) of habit-forming drugs
    Controlled Substance Act
  27. Which schedule can be described by:
    -high potential for abuse
    -no accepted medical use in the US
    -lack of accepted safety

    What are some examples?
    • Schedule I
    • illegal drugs such as heroin, marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy
  28. Which schedule can be described by:
    -high potential for abuse
    -currently accepted medical use in the US
    -high potential for dependence
    -Rx: no refills allowed
    -pharmacy may accept TO in emergency, but prescriber must provide written script within 72 hrs; most pharmacies refuse TO

    What are some examples?
    • Schedule II
    • morphine, Demerol, codeine, oxycodone (Percocet), Dilaudid, Ritalin, methadone
  29. Which schedule can be described by:
    -high potenial for abuse, but less than I or II
    -currently accepted medical use in the US
    -moderate potential for dependence
    Rx:  can write refills for 5 times to be used within 6 months from date of issue
    -TO acceptable

    What are some examples?
    • Schedule III
    • Tylenol w/ codeine, hydrocodone combos (Lorcet, Lortab, Vicodin), Marinol
  30. Which schedule can be described by:
    -less potential for abuse compared to III
    -currently accepted medical use in the US
    -lower potential for dependence compared to Schedule III
    Rx:  can write refills for 6 times from date of issue
    -TO acceptable

    What are some examples?
    • Schedule IV
    • -Valium, Xanax, Ativan, Librium, Ambien, Versed
  31. Which schedule can be described by:
    -minimal potential for abuse as compared to schedule IV
    -currently accepted medical use in the US
    -limited potential for dependence compared to Schedule IV
    Rx:  no restrictions on number of refills

    What are some examples?
    • Schedule V
    • Lomotil, Robitussin AC, Lyrica
  32. What was organized to enforce the Controlled Substances Act and to train/conduct research related to dangerous drugs/drug abuse?
    DEA; Drug Enforcement Agency
  33. Prescription for controlled substance must include:
    • physician's name & address
    • DEA #
    • date
    • signature
    • pt's name & address
  34. A nurse cannot have a controlled substance in his/her possession unless he/she is:
    • administering it to a pt with a physician's order
    • responsible for the stock supply on unit
    • a pt him/herself taking the drug with a valid prescription
  35. What do you do if a controlled substance is ordered for a pt, but isn't used?
    • must be returned to source from which it was obtained
    • have another nurse witness and sign inventory sheet to verify that drug was discarded
  36. What is the FDA approval process?
    • 1.  Preclinical research and development
    • 2.  Clinical research and development
    • 3.  New drug application (NDA) review
    • 4.  Post-marketing surveillance
  37. What gives research money to companies that seek to develop drugs for "health orphans" 
    Orphan Drug Act
  38. A drug that interacts with the receptor to stimulate a response is an:
    agonist
  39. A drug that interacts with the receptor to stimulate some responses/inhibit others, is called:
    partial agonist
  40. A drug that attaches to the receptor, but does not stimulate a response is called:
    antagonist
  41. Once in the body, what 4 stages do drugs go through?
    • ADME
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
  42. The absorption rate depends on:
    • solubility of drug
    • route of administration
    • blood flow through tissue at point of drug administration
  43. What are the routes of administration?
    • enteral:  directly into GI tract
    • parenteral:  bypass GI tract
    • percutaneous:  through skin/mucous membranes

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