Anthropology

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angieloz16
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198830
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Anthropology
Updated:
2013-02-08 01:06:22
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Chapters 1, 2, & 3
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  1. An example of an ethnography is a(n) _____. 
    study of the behavior of residents in a retirement home.
  2. The nature of ethnocentrism involves _____. 
    all of these choices
  3. Prehistoric archaeologists work with which of the following?
    artifacts, ecofacts, and features
  4. Which of the following is not a traditional subfield  or branch, of anthropology?
    ethological anthropology
  5. Primatology is the study of _____. 
    the anatomy and social behavior of non-human primates in order to better understand humans
  6. Eric Wolf suggested that anthropology _____. 
    spans the gap between the humanities, social and natural sciences
  7. Ecofacts are _____. 
    objects found in the natural environment that were used by people but not made or altered by them
  8. The anthropological attitude that a society’s customs and ideas should be viewed in the context of its own culture is called ______. 
    cultural relativism
  9. Cultural relativism was first coined by ____. 
    Boas and Herskovits
  10. The recent intensification of the flow of money, goods, and information to all parts of the world is referred to as _____. 
    globalization
  11. Studying sound and grammatical systems in a specific language is the work of a(n) _____. 
    descriptive linguist
  12. The word “anthropology” derives from the Greek anthropos and logos and literally means _____. 
    the study of humans
  13. Although the global scope of anthropological studies has increased during the past century, most recently there has been increased attention on _____. 
    urban and industrial societies
  14. Which of the following best characterizes the study of paleoanthropology?
    Paleoanthropologists focus on the reconstruction of the human fossil record through the excavation and analysis of fossil remains
  15. Historic archaeology ______. 
    works to reconstruct the cultures of people who used writing and about whom records exist
  16. Cultural relativism _____. 
    is the core tenant of the study of anthropology: remaining objective
  17. The study of other cultures and other ways of life should lead us to an understanding that _____. 
    all cultures have value and none is better than any other
  18. The ability to see how a single entity is composed of a number of different parts and how these parts are interconnected is called _____. 
    cognitive complexity
  19. Why are forensic anthropologists asked to testify at trials frequently?
    They specialize in identifying victims and circumstances of death
  20. Physical anthropologists are interested in human variation today because ______. 
    it allows us an understanding of how humans adapt to the environment
  21. Ethnographic research usually involves all of the following except ______. 
    working to make cultures more similar
  22. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ______. 
    other cultures are inferior to one’s own
  23. Which of the following statements is not true?
    Ethnocentrism is worse in urban societies than in rural ones
  24. Being attentive to both verbal and nonverbal communication is a skill known as _____. 
    perceptual acuity
  25. Which statement about the learned nature of culture is true?
    People learn what they need to know in order to adapt to their environment
  26. Despite many differences in details, all cultures share a number of common cultural features including _____. 
    each of the systems listed here
  27. The integration of a culture means that _____. 
    cultural  parts are somewhat interconnected with one another
  28. In comparison to the United States and Germany, why have so few scientists received Nobel Prizes in Japan?
    Japanese culture does not value bold experimentation of individual accomplishment as much as these other countries
  29. Which of the following is not an example of cultural diffusion?
    the use of the detachable outrigger on the island of Hiva Oa
  30. People from the same culture can predict one another's behavior because _____. 
    culture conditions behavior
  31. Symbols are one of the most critical components of culture. Which of the following statements is not true of symbols?
    Symbols are completely separate from language
  32. The spread of a cultural element from one society to another is called ______. 
    cultural diffusion
  33. What types of cultures remain completely static year after year?
    No culture remains completely static
  34. In situations of cultural diffusion _____. 
    the two cultures do not exchange every cultural item.
  35. Which statement about the concept of culture is false?
    Most cultural universals are instinctual.
  36. The anthropological concept of culture includes all of the following except ______. 
    genetic aspects of being human
  37. The task of the cultural anthropologist is to _____. 
    describe the various parts of the culture he or she studies
  38. The process by which people acquire their own culture is _____. 
    called enculturation
  39. Which of the following is the best example of the enculturation process?
    an infant learning how to walk and speak
  40. The anthropological attitude that a society’s customs and ideas should be viewed in the context of that society’s culture is called _____. 
    cultural relativism
  41. In situations of cultural diffusion _____. 
    the two cultures do not exchange every cultural item
  42. Which of the following is not a universal cultural need?
    a formal educational system
  43. Forced borrowing under conditions of external pressure is a form of _____. 
    acculturation
  44. The “organic analogy” refers to the idea that ____. 
    the parts of a culture are interconnected much as are the organs of a living animal
  45. All of the following are components of any definition of culture except ____. 
    biological predispositions
  46. Symbols are one of the most critical components of culture. Which of the following statements is not true of symbols?
    Symbols are completely separate from language
  47. Saying that every society has an economic system means that _____. 
    every society has worked out a patterned way of ensuring that people get what they need for survival
  48. Applied anthropologists ______. 
    All of these choices
  49. Applied anthropology includes all of the following except _____. 
    postmodern anthropology
  50. Which of the following was the subject of Penny Van Esterik’s applied research?
    Nestle baby formula controversy
  51. Applied anthropology ____. 
    is harder to define than the four traditional subfields
  52. Applied anthropology is focused more on solving _______ than theoretical anthropology.
    social problems
  53. Cultural relativism tends to foster _____. 
    tolerance
  54. In order to protect consumers, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed the Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in 1981. Which of the following countries did not sign this document as supporter?
    United States
  55. Applied anthropologist Li Jian found various kinds of barriers for rural Chinese to convert to household-based biogas production. Which of the following is not one of the types of barriers?
    sufficient number of cattle
  56. All of the following were detrimentally affected by the use of biocides on three Caribbean islands except _____. 
    wild rice
  57. The ethnographic study of adolescent drug dealers is best considered a part of which specialty of cultural anthropology?
    Urban anthropology
  58. Which of the following features is not associated particularly with anthropology?
    focus on statistics
  59. Why are ethnographic studies of powerful institutions in U.S. society so rarely conducted?
    Influential policy setters are usually unwilling to submit to ethnographic study.
  60. Alexander Ervin suggests that there are five types of cultural anthropology along a continuum. Which of the following is not one of the types of cultural anthropology that he proposed?
    Practicing ethnology
  61. Which of the following types of cultural anthropology would be considered the least applied in its focus?
    Basic ethnography
  62. Supporters of applied anthropological research
    often include national and international agencies and private organizations.
  63. Applied anthropologist Penny Van Esterik played what role is the Nestle controversy?
    advocate
  64. Anthropology aimed very purposefully at practical results is referred to as _____. 
    applied anthropology
  65. A specialized role in which an applied anthropologist presents culturally relevant research findings as part of a judicial proceeding is called a(n) _____. 
    expert witness
  66. Richard Dembo’s study of crack cocaine in west central Florida found that _____. 
    teenage dealers were using most of their income for luxury items for themselves
  67. A specialized role in which an applied anthropologist conducts a fairly specialized type of research designed to determine whether a proposed program or project is needed is that of ______. 
    needs assessor
  68. Understanding of the multiple variables involved in human problems is fostered primarily by which special feature of anthropology?
    the holistic perspective
  69. Policy researcher, needs assessor, and advocate are all ______.
    specialized roles for applied anthropologists

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