Terms: 41

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  1. autotroph
    • self-producing organism; produces their own food
    • organisms that can take inorganic molecules and convert them to organic molecules
    • usually photosynthetic organisms
  2. Heterotrophs
    • incapable of making their own food
    • organisms that rely on energy sources through consuming autotrophs or other heterotrophs
    • must carry out digestion to break down organic molecules into building blocks and use them as building blocks to build new organic materials¬†
    • have to eat already synthesized organic materials
  3. intracellular digestion
    • digestion that occurs within a cell through phagocytosis or pinocytosis
    • Afterwards, a food vacuole is formed, which fuses with a lysosome, whose lytic enzymes digest the materials
    • the waste is then expelled through exocytosis
  4. extracellular
    • digestion that occurs outside of a cell and in a specialized cavity
    • two types: one that occurs in the environment and one that occurs in the body, but outside the cell (in a compartment)
  5. advanced extracellular digestion-above sponges
    • advanced extracellular digestion (above sponges) occurs in organisms that have gastrovascular cavities (digestive cavity)
    • one opening
    • carry out extracellular digestion and intracellular digestion, such as cnidarians (hydras) and the platyhelminthes
    • allows for an organism to digest larger pieces of food, which wouldn't be possible with a cell
  6. gastrovascular cavity
    • a central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients
    • ex: cnidarians and platyhelminthes
  7. alimentary canal
    • a complete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus
    • one way flow (food goes in one way and out the other)
    • absorption occurs in the tube to allow nutrients to be taken up by the body and transferred to other parts
  8. rugae
    irregular contours or folds in the lining of the stomach to increase the surface area and allow for the stomach to be smaller and distend when it is full
  9. plicae
    circular or pleated arrangements of the mucosa in the wall of the small intestine; it increases surface area and stretches out when food is in it
  10. villi
    • projections of the wall of the small intestine; undulating layers of the wall of the small intestine¬†
    • the simple columnar epitheium (in humans) is thrown into a clown collar
    • fingerlike projections
  11. microvilli
    • modifications on each cell of a villus to increase the surface area for absorption
    • each cell of mucosa, at least in man, has the microvilli
  12. spiral valve
    In fish, instead of plicae in the stomach, they contain spiral valves, which are spiral arrangements in the ilium
  13. polyphyodont
    the characteristic of fish, amphibians and reptiles; many sets of teeth
  14. Diphyodont
    • In humans
    • only two sets of teeth: temporary and permanent
  15. Homodont
    • Characteristic of amphibians, reptiles, and fish
    • Means one type of tooth in the mouth; it can be either sharp, flat, etc. but it has to be of one kind
  16. Heterodont
    • numerous types of teeth in the mouth
    • humans
  17. Crop
    • structure in grain-eating birds that stores the grain before digestion
    • an enlarged part of the esophagus
    • temporarily store food
  18. Gizzard
    part of the stomach of a grain-eating bird that functions through mechanical digestion. It causes the tossing around of grain to grind and pulverize the grain
  19. Cloaca
    single opening in many nonmammalian vertebrates and some mammals that functions as the opening of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tract; means sewer
  20. Submandibular gland
    • gland that is located around the jaw area of the face
    • it releases salivary amylase
  21. sublingual gland
    • gland that is located around the tongue
    • it releases salivary amylase
  22. parotid gland
    gland that is located around the ear area of the faceit releases salivary amylase
  23. macronutrients
    • an essential element that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts
    • 9 out of 17 essential elements are macronutrients
    • nitrogen is one
  24. micronutrients
    • an essential element that an organism needs in very small amounts
    • tiny quantities needed
  25. humus
    decomposing organic material that is a component of topsoil
Card Set:
Terms: 41
2013-02-08 19:58:30
BIO 220

Nutrition and Digestion
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