Ruminant Digestion

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  1. Who are ruminants?
    most herbivores- good at digesting large amounts of cellulose
  2. Young ruminant diet
    • milk-first few weeks
    • feed-after a few weeks
  3. young ruminant rumen:
    undeveloped at birth, no microorganisms
  4. When does the rumen start to develop in young ruminants?
    • partially  at 4-6 weeks with gradual solid food added while nursing
    • butyrate through grains
  5. When is the rumen fully developed?
    after 6 months
  6. The mouth of rumen
    • no upper incisors
    • have lower incisors
    • necessary for particle size reduction
    • uses saliva
  7. The 4 stomach compartments:
    • reticulum
    • rumen
    • omasum
    • abomasum
  8. What does the reticulum do?
    • acts as a pacemaker for stomach contractions
    • site of microbial digestion and volatile fatty acid production
  9. Functions of rumen
    food storage and fermentation
  10. steps to rumination
    • regurgitation
    • remastication
    • resalivation
    • re-deglutition
  11. What are the microorganisms involved in fermentation?
    • bacteria- digest various nutrients
    • protozoa- prey upon bacteria
    • yeast- aerobic substrate that good bacteria prefer
    • fungi- aerobic that aid in cellulose digestion
  12. What is the purpose of the omasum?
    • regulates passage rate (particle size)
    • mechanical digestion
    • water/VFA absorption
  13. What is the abomasum?
    • true stomach
    • glandular (not as low of a pH ~3.0)
  14. Necessities to feed ruminants
    must balance need of microbes and animals
  15. By-products of Anaerobic Fermentation
    • Microbial Cell Protein
    • Volatile Fatty Acids
    • Vitamins
    • Essential Fatty Acids 
    • Gas and Heat
  16. Benfits of Anaerobic Fermentation
    • MCP 
    • VFA
    • Saturated Fats
    • Vitamins
    • Carbohydrates
  17. Disadvantage of Anaerobic fermentation
    • gas production due to extra step in ruminants
    • bloat
    • eructation
Card Set:
Ruminant Digestion
2013-02-08 05:34:52

goes through basic processes, nutrient digestion, rumination and fermentation
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