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Who are ruminants?
most herbivores- good at digesting large amounts of cellulose
Young ruminant diet
- milk-first few weeks
- feed-after a few weeks
young ruminant rumen:
undeveloped at birth, no microorganisms
When does the rumen start to develop in young ruminants?
- partially at 4-6 weeks with gradual solid food added while nursing
- butyrate through grains
When is the rumen fully developed?
after 6 months
The mouth of rumen
- no upper incisors
- have lower incisors
- necessary for particle size reduction
- uses saliva
The 4 stomach compartments:
What does the reticulum do?
- acts as a pacemaker for stomach contractions
- site of microbial digestion and volatile fatty acid production
Functions of rumen
food storage and fermentation
steps to rumination
What are the microorganisms involved in fermentation?
- bacteria- digest various nutrients
- protozoa- prey upon bacteria
- yeast- aerobic substrate that good bacteria prefer
- fungi- aerobic that aid in cellulose digestion
What is the purpose of the omasum?
- regulates passage rate (particle size)
- mechanical digestion
- water/VFA absorption
What is the abomasum?
- true stomach
- glandular (not as low of a pH ~3.0)
Necessities to feed ruminants
must balance need of microbes and animals
By-products of Anaerobic Fermentation
- Microbial Cell Protein
- Volatile Fatty Acids
- Essential Fatty Acids
- Gas and Heat
Benfits of Anaerobic Fermentation
- Saturated Fats
Disadvantage of Anaerobic fermentation
- gas production due to extra step in ruminants