the Sacral and Thoracic regions have primary or first degree curvatures that face anterior.
Describe the secondary curvature of the spine:
The Cervical and Lumbar regions have secondary or second degree curves that open posterior.
Describe the Cervical Vertebrae:
7 Cervical Vertebrae,
Bifid spinous process.
Describe the Thoracic vertebrae:
12 Thoracic vertebrae
Long downward pointing spinous process
Describe the Lumbar vertebrae:
5 Lumbar vertebrae.
Hatchet Spinous process.
Describe an vertebral disk:
Rings of Annulus Fibrosus surrounding the Nucleus Pulposus.
Describe the Longitudinal ligaments:
The Anterior ligament runs posterior to the vertebral body.
The posterior longitudinal ligament runs posterior to the v. body inside the vertebral foramen.
Describe the Intervertebral foramen:
Between the body and transverse processes of the vertebrae runs a horizontal foramen marked by articular processes.
Describe the ligamentum flavum:
Posterior to the posterior longitudinal ligament at each articulation.
Associated with the zygopophysial joints.
Runs inside the vertebral foramen.
Describe the End of the spinal cord:
The Conus medullarus ends the spinal cord, and becomes the filum terminale. All along the conus medullarus emerges the cauda equina. The whole thing is wrapped in dura mater, and attaches down at the hip.
Describe how the skull attaches to the cervical vertebrae:
The occipital bone protrudes down and attaches to the atlas at the 2 atlanto/occipital joints. These are encased in the capsule of the atlanto/occipito joint.
The atlas then attaches to the axis at the atlanto/axial joint (also encapsulated)
The Dens(axis) is bound to the occipital by a V formed by the alar ligament.
The Dens is then surounded by the transverse ligament of the atlas.
The superior and inferior longitudinal bands rund occipital to axis just under the transverse ligament of the atlas, and these 4 make up the cruciate ligament.
The Tectoral membrane then decends to form the posterior longitudinal ligament.