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2013-02-08 10:25:02

Quantitative Research MEthods
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  1. Matilda has about 6 missing cases on her index of voting interest out of 1500 respondents. The best strategy for handling these missing cases would be to:
    exclude them from the construction of the index and the analysis.
  2. If an index fails to predict strongly the
    external validation items, it is due to either:
    the index does not adequately measure the variable or the validation items do not adequately measure the variable.
  3. Surrisi wants to develop a scale measuring love
    and wants to include a few dozen judges, or experts, to rate each of her items
    in terms of how strongly each indicator measures love. She should use:
    Thurstone scaling.
  4. Yellow Bird wanted to develop a measure of
    satisfaction with school life using items to reflect the various dimensions of
    school life (academics, social life, residence halls). She wanted to have each
    item measure intensity of feeling by using such categories as "strongly
    agree" and "strongly disagree." Which approach is best?
  5. Serrina wanted to analyze the intersection
    between two variables--school type (public or private) and school location
    (urban or rural)--in her study of student values. Which approach should she use?
  6. External validation is to internal validation as prediction is to:
    the connection between the composite index and individual items.
  7. Which one of the following is not one of the reasons composite measures are frequently used?
    Certain theories and paradigms require composite measures.
  8. The Bogardus scale measures:
    the willingness of people to participate in social relations with other kinds of people.
  9. Frank wants to develop a measure of support for recycling such that he
    can assign scores to patterns of responses. Some items reflect a
    relatively weak degree of the variable while others reflect something
    stronger. Which one of the following should he use?
  10. Which type of validity is used to select items for an index?
  11. Why should you perform bivariate and multivariate analyses of the items in your index?
    To see how they correspond to each other to decide which ones should be included.
  12. Why should you perform bivariate and multivariate analyses of the items in your index?
    To see how they correspond to each other to decide which ones should be included.
  13. What are the two decisions to be made in deciding how to score an index?
    The desirable range of index scores and the assignment of scores for each response.
  14. Edgar decides to validate his index of marital happiness by determining which people subsequently divorced. Edgar is using:
    external validation.
  15. Nick wanted to develop a scale to determine how willing people are to
    connect at various levels with people with disabilities. Nick should use
    Bogardus social distance scale.
  16. Othello wanted to develop a scale to measure love that involved having
    respondents choose between two opposite positions, using qualifiers to
    bridge the distance between the two opposites. Best to use would be the:
    semantic differential
  17. In addition to using two opposite positions, the semantic differential also uses:
    qualifiers in between the opposites.
  18. he coefficient of reproducibility is used with which scale?
  19. The coefficient of reproducibility indicates:
    the percentage of original responses that could be reproduced by knowing the scale score.
  20. Problems will emerge especially when typologies are used as:
    a dependent variable
  21. The Thurstone scale was named after Rensis Likert.
  22. Although it is referred to as Likert scaling, to call it a scale is really a misnomer.
  23. Scales are superior to indexes.
  24. Generally, a composite measure should represent only one dimension of a concept.
  25. It is important to examine both univariate and bivariate relationships among items in refining an index.
  26. The phrase "equal appearing intervals" applies to the Thurstone scale.
  27. The Bogardus social distance scale measures how much alienation people experience.
  28. The whole point of scoring is to create a single composite index out of several items.
  29. Researchers use scales much more frequently than they use indexes.
  30. If an index fails to predict external validation items, the conclusion
    to be drawn is more ambiguous than if item analysis show inconsistent
    relationships between the items and the index itself.
  31. _______ scaling is an attempt to develop a format for generating groups of
    indicators of a concept that have at least an empirical structure among
  32. The _____ asks respondents to choose between two opposite positions on various dimensions.
    semantic differential
  33. With _______ scaling, one looks for an underlying
    intensity structure among responses to items such that "hard" and "easy"
    indicators can be identified.
  34. The _______ is used in Guttman scaling to determine the
    percentage of original responses that could be reproduced by knowing the
    scale scores used to summarize them.
    coefficient of reproducibility
  35. The principle of item selection that helps develop items with sufficient range on the variable you are measuring is known as ______.
  36. Maggie wanted to do a study of women who had participated in
    extramarital affairs. Since there is no sampling frame listing all such
    women, she visited a women's group and asked for volunteers among those
    who had participated in an affair. She then asked each of those women
    for the names of other possible study participants. She was using which
    snowball sampling
  37. What is the unit about which information is collected in a sample, and that provides the basis of analysis?
  38. Becky determined that the mean age of all students at her community
    college, the population she wished to study, was 22.3 years old. This
    value is known as a/an:
  39. Chauncey determined that 50 percent of students at his school voted
    Republican in the last election, with a sampling error (also known as
    standard error) of 5 percent. What is the confidence interval for a 95
    percent confidence level?
    40 to 60 percent
  40. Unlisted telephone numbers creates a special problem for accurate:
    sampling frames.
  41. Periodicity is a particular problem for which sampling design?
  42. Stratification is based on which principle?
    A homogeneous population produces samples with smaller sampling errors.
  43. Andre surveyed the first ten students walking out of the library on
    three consecutive evenings, starting at 7PM. Which sampling design does
    this example reflect?
    reliance on available subjects
  44. Gilbert wanted to study only students who do very well in class because
    such students would best help him test his theory. He asked 20
    professors for the names of high achieving students and he then
    interviewed them. Which sampling design does this example reflect?
  45. Holstein set up a matrix representing his population of residence hall
    students, using gender and class level. He then started interviewing
    students and continued until he had accomplished the percentages he set
    out in the beginning. Which sampling design does this example reflect?
  46. When people selected for a sample are not typical or representative of
    the larger population from which they have been selected, we have:
  47. EPSEM means:
    equal parameter statistic election means.
  48. Sequine sampled states first, then churches, and then church members. Each of these three is known as a/an:
    sampling unit.
  49. Sampling error reflects:
    the degree of error to be expected for a given sample design.
  50. Walker took a systematic sample from the list of members in his car club
    by selecting every sixth member. The list of members is known as the:
    sampling frame.
  51. If you are particularly concerned about how well a sample represents a population, pay particular attention to the:
    sampling frame.
  52. A table of random numbers is used for which design?
    simple random sampling
  53. Maggie sampled 25 members in her church by taking every fifth member.
    There are 200 members in the church. What is the sampling ratio?
  54. Mildred wanted to do a study of recycling club members employing a
    random sample. There is no master list of recycling club members in the
    US. She has only enough money to study 70 clubs. What would be the best
    design to use?
  55. What is the basic process in probability proportionate to size sampling?
    Give bigger clusters a greater chance of being picked but then take the same number of elements per cluster.
  56. Findings based on a sample can be taken as representing only the aggregation of elements that compose the sampling frame.
  57. Probability sampling provides a sample from a population such that the
    sample contains essentially the same variations that exist in the
  58. Bias in sampling simply means that those selected are not typical or
    representative of the larger populations they have been chosen from.
  59. The study population is more theoretically specified than the population.
  60. Sampling error is the degree of error to be expected for a given method of measuring a variable.
  61. Systematic sampling is seldom used in practice, with simple random sampling being the preferred approach.
  62. In systematic sampling, the sampling ratio is the standard distance between elements selected in the sample.
  63. Multistage cluster samples have more sampling error than a simple random sample.
  64. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used when you want to
    oversample some subpopulations to make sure you have enough people to
    use in your analyses.
  65. Stratified sampling is based on the principle that the larger the sample, the lower the sampling error.
  66. We use the _____ to establish the accuracy of our sample statistics by indicating how sure we can be that the statistics
    fall within a specified interval from the parameter.
    confidence level
  67. In systematic sampling, the _____ is the standard distance between elements selected in the sample.
    sampling interval
  68. ______ is used when it is difficult to compile an exhaustive list of the elements comprising the target population.
    Instead, subpopulations are sampled.
    Multistage cluster sampling
  69. ______ is used when it is difficult to compile anĀ  exhaustive list of the elements comprising the target population.
    Instead, subpopulations are sampled.
    Probability proportionate to size sampling
  70. With __________ sampling, a researcher selects a sample on the basis of knowledge of a population, its elements, and the purpose of the study.
  71. Priscilla wishes to study the
    competing views between students and teachers regarding what high school should
    be like. She is particularly interested in strategies for reducing the
    divergence between teachers and students. Best to use would be:
    conflict theory.
  72. Renzetta wishes to study the interaction
    patterns between parents and their young children, especially as the children
    learn to use language. Best to use would be:
    symbolic interactionism.
  73. Modesto was concerned that many respected theories of stratification were based
    on data about men. She wanted to examine the causes and consequences of class
    among women, with a particular focus on how stratification systems often
    oppress women. Which paradigm would be best?
  74. Which theorist examined society in terms of
    those with access to the means of production and workers?
  75. Which one of the following statements best
    summarizes the role of deduction and induction?
    • In practice, scientific inquiry involves an
    • alternation between deduction and induction.
  76. The first step in constructing a theory through
    the inductive method is to:
    observe some segment of social life.
  77. Which theorist suggested that religious belief
    be replaced with scientific objectivity?
  78. Who was an early theorist concerned with how
    individuals interacted with one another?
  79. Which term generally represents the belief in a
    logically ordered, objective reality that we can come to know?
  80. An essential quality in any hypothesis is that
    it can be supported or not supported, which is known as:
  81. Hortense assumed that students like to get high
    grades. He then developed a specific testable expectation that the more
    students study, the higher their grades. This expectation is known as a/an:
  82. The famous Asch experiment suggests that:
    • a more sophisticated positivism would assert
    • that we can rationally understand even nonrational human behavior.
  83. According to the traditional model of science,
    scientists begin with:
    a theory
  84. Frank developed a theory and an hypothesis about
    criminal behavior as related to gender. He constructed measures for criminal
    behavior. The next step for Frank according to the traditional model of science
  85. The first step in deductive theory construction
    is to:
    pick a topic that interests you.
  86. The last step in deductive theory construction
    is to:
    • reason logically from what is known to your
    • specific topic.
  87. The step between hypothesis and observation in
    the traditional model of science is:
    operational definitions
  88. Which two factors help counter the potential
    bias that may emerge in research by following a particular theoretical
  89. The use of social science methods
    and the collective nature of social research.
  90. The feminist paradigm is politically concerned
    with the oppression of women in many societies.
  91. Ultimately, we'll never know whether there is an
    objective reality that we experience subjectively or whether our concepts of an
    objective reality are illusory.
  92. Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms
    provide ways of looking at fundamental frames of reference.
  93. Social scientists interested in explaining
    international relations and the intersections among the various institutions in
    a society would be more likely to use a microtheory than a macrotheory.
  94. Field research is used more often in inductive
    theory construction than in deductive theory construction.
  95. Field research is used more often in inductive
    theory construction than in deductive theory construction.
  96. The paradigm that states that social entities
    are made up of interconnected parts is structural functionalism.
  97. Symbolic interactionism is more of a microtheory
    than a macrotheory
  98. Social theories that focus
    attention on society at large are called ______.
  99. The person most responsible for
    the conflict paradigm is _________.
  100. The ethical issue of voluntary participation is most closely related to which one of the following?
    informed consent
  101. Zoe is a student at Lake Wobegon State University and wishes to do a study on how students' living arrangements affect their academic engagement. Who must review her research before it can be done?
    the Institutional Review Board
  102. The main reasons that codes of ethics exist are that:
    ethical issues are both important and ambiguous.
  103. The distinction between the ethics and politics of social research is that:
    the ethics deals mostly with the methods employed while the politics deals mostly with the substance and use of research.
  104. Which one of the following is false?
    Researchers should not participate in public debates and express their scientific expertise and personal values.
  105. The norm of voluntary participation most threatens which aspect of the research process?
  106. Denise did an experiment on what generates hostility and was particularly concerned that her subjects base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved. This is an example of:
    informed consent.
  107. Violet did a survey of the students in her residence hall in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed:
  108. Ed did a survey of the students in his introductory sociology class in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed:
  109. Formal ethical principles are known as:
    codes of ethics.
  110. Debriefing is particularly helpful in responding to which ethical issue?
  111. The chief responsibility of Institutional Review Boards is to make sure that:
    the risks faced by human participants in research are minimal.
  112. If a research study was not rigorously preplanned and organized, it is best to:
    report on the exact design used.
  113. Who serves on Institutional Review Boards?
    Faculty members
  114. Professional associations have developed codes of ethics because:
    ethical issues are important and ambiguous.
  115. The main ethical issue in Laud Humphreys' study of homosexuals was:
  116. The main ethical issue in Stanley Milgram's study on obedience (electric shocks) was:
    no harm to participants
  117. Social research and politics have been particularly controversially intertwined in what area?
    racial relations
  118. Which one of the following is false regarding the lessons of Babbie's discussion of politics?
    Researchers should not participate in public debates and should not express both their scientific expertise and personal values.
  119. Serving as an expert witness:
    carries more political implications than ethical implications.
  120. The ethics of social research deals mostly with the methods employed while political issues tend to center on the substance and use of research.
  121. If you have anonymity you have confidentiality, but if you have confidentiality you do not necessarily have anonymity.
  122. The norm of voluntary participation goes directly against several scientific concerns.
  123. Just about any research that you might conduct runs the risk of injuring other people in some way.
  124. Nowhere have social research and politics been more controversially intertwined than in the area of racial relations.
  125. Spurious relationships are relevant for which criterion for establishing nomothetic causality?
    The effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
  126. The ecological fallacy is most relevant in terms of which one of the following?
    Units of analysis.
  127. Yugorsky studied five fifth-grade classes over three years to determine how friendship patterns established in the fifth grade affected friendship patterns in the eighth grade. He studied the same group of students over time, but not necessarily the same individuals. Which design did he use?
  128. Longitudinal studies are particularly useful for addressing which criterion for establishing causality?
    Time Order
  129. Desiree did a study on the causes of juvenile delinquency. Specifically, she examined if living in a city as opposed to the suburbs caused adolescents to become more delinquent. Which purpose of research did she pursue?
  130. Ricardo studied married couples in order to see if length of marriage affected the nature and quality of communication patterns. Which unit of analysis did he use?
  131. In order to receive an honorable or dishonorable discharge from the military, you must be in the military. In terms of the discharge type, being in the military is a/an:
    necessary cause.
  132. Exploratory studies are done for all except which one of the following purposes?
    To sort out the ethical implications of a study.
  133. Cindy established that gender came before voting in her study of adults in her city, so the time order was clear. She also ruled out the effects of age, religiosity, and other "third" variables. Which criterion for causality remains for her to establish?
    The relationship exists
  134. Brunelle concluded from her study on gender and delinquency that it is not just probabilistic that men commit more delinquency, but that gender is the only relevant factor in that high levels of delinquency are always committed by men. Which false criterion for nomothetic causality is reflected in this example?
    complete causation
  135. Othello studied blogs to examine how they have changed in content over time. What was his unit of analysis?
  136. Andrea studied Native American women to learn more about how they cope with their minority status. What was her unit of analysis?
  137. Which one of the following is the best example of reductionism?
    Roberto explained suicide entirely in terms of psychological factors.
  138. Which one of the following is the best example of the ecological fallacy?
    Felisha studied Census tracts for her study on crime but then wrote up her conclusions in terms of individuals.
  139. Which one of the following designs is the most likely to be used for descriptive purposes?
  140. Vice president of sales Bennett wishes to study the changing characteristics of customers over the past ten years. Best to use would be a:
    Trend Study
  141. Margot wants to examine how student nurses change in their orientation towards patients over the course of their three years in nursing school. She is particularly concerned with following changes within the same individuals. Best to use would be a:
    panel study
  142. Rowan wishes to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about how church attendance as a child is connected with juvenile deviance as a teen. He can approximate a longitudinal study by:
    make logical inferences based on the time order of his variables.
  143. Which one of the following represents a condition that must be present for the effect to follow?
    necessary cause
  144. Once you have a well-defined purpose for your study and a clear description of the kinds of outcomes you want to achieve, the next step in your research design is:
  145. We never discover single causes that are absolutely necessary and absolutely sufficient when analyzing nomothetic relationships.
  146. Sociobiology is a prime example of reductionism.
  147. A panel study is a type of longitudinal study which examines the same individuals in a set of people at various points in time.
  148. It is possible to study units of analysis other than individuals, groups, organizations, social interactions, and social artifacts.
  149. Researchers can draw approximate conclusions about processes that take place over time by using cross-sectional data.
  150. Juan wanted to be particularly careful to represent all levels of feelings about how ethical members of Congress are. So, instead of just asking how much respondents agreed with a statement that "Members of Congress are ethical," he instead asked for responses ranging from "Members are completely unethical" to "Members are always very ethical." Juan was responding to which operationalization choice?
    range of variation
  151. Which method for establishing reliability does not depend on using the measure itself?
    research worker reliability
  152. Belinda used IQ in her study of depression. What is the level of measurement of IQ?
  153. Lucinda established the validity of her religiosity measure by making sure it corresponded with our common agreements and our individual mental images concerning her concept. She did this by checking with other people, particularly those familiar with religious issues. Which measure of validity did she use?
    Face validity
  154. Nominal definitions most closely parallel which type of validity measure?
    face validity
  155. Myrna measured class level of students at her university, which has graduate programs, with these attributes: first-year, sophomore, junior, and senior. Which quality of measures does this measure lack?
    must be exhaustive
  156. Luke developed a measure of religious affiliation that included these attributes: Protestant, Baptist, Catholic, Jewish, Other, None. Which quality of measures does this measure lack?
    must be mutually exclusive
  157. Esther spent some time talking to students in love to specify what she means by love. She was engaged in:
  158. Theoretical creations that are based on observations but that cannot be observed directly or indirectly are known as:
  159. Marlinda developed three aspects for her concept love: communication, trust, and attraction. These aspects are known as:
  160. Miguel developed items to help determine the presence or absence of his concept of love. These items are known as:
  161. Larry has developed ten indicators for the concept alienation. He's not yet sure exactly which ones are best. One approach he takes is to see if all the indicators behave the same way when related to Larry's independent variable, gender. Larry is employing:
    interchangeability of indicators.
  162. Nancy tried to develop a definition of occupational success that included its essential nature. She tried to develop a/an:
    operational definition.
  163. The reason why definitions are less problematic in explanatory research than in descriptive research is because:
    different definitions of a concept should related to another concept in a similar manner.
  164. Region (East, West, South, Midwest) is what level of measurement?
  165. The main reason you need to know the level of measurement for your variables is so that:
    you will know which statistics to use.
  166. Monique developed a measure of religiosity and gave her instrument to her sample on two different occasions to see how reliable it was. Which type of reliability is reflected in this example?
  167. Monty used his ten-item scale on love to see how separate sets of five indicators correlated with each other. Which type of reliability is reflected in this example?
  168. Nelson wanted to validate his measure of driver awareness. He did so by checking with the Department of Motor Vehicles a few years after giving his measure to young teens to see how many tickets they had received. Which type of validity does this example reflect?
    Criterion related
  169. Sophie developed a measure of job satisfaction. She validated her measure by seeing if it related to other variables that she logically expected to be related to job satisfaction. Which type of validity does this example reflect?
  170. Real definitions are less useful than nominal and operational definitions.
  171. Quantitative, nomothetic, structured techniques tend to be more reliable, and qualitative, idiographic methods tend to be more valid.