Inorganic Chemistry part 2
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Describe chemical equilibrium.
A state in which the rates of forward & reverse reactions are the same. It is an active, dynamic condition.
What is the equilibrium equation?
Where M and N are the product concentration and A and B are the reactant concentration
What is Le Chateliers's principle?
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts to relieve the stress.
Even though the additional stress changes the values of the system K does not change.
What are the properties of a gas?
- Variable volume & shape that depends on the container (expands to fill entire container)
- Particles feel little attraction for each other
- Low density
- Expand & contract significantly with temperature changes.
What are the properties of a liquid?
- Definite volume but variable shape dependent on container
- Molecules held together by Van der Waal’s forces (attractive forces) but can slide over each other
Describe a the characteristics of a solid.
Definite volume & shape independent of container
What does the kinetic molecular theory of gases state?
- A gas consists of many particles, either atoms or molecules, moving about at random with no attractive forces between them.
- The amount of space occupied by gas particles themselves is much smaller than the amount of space between the gas particles.
- The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
- Collisions of gas particles, either with each other or with the wall of their container, are elastic so that the total kinetic energy of the particles is constant.
What is Boyles Law?
P1V1 = P2V2or-PV= k (a constant)
Is boyles law an inverse or proportional relationship?
- As the pressure of a gas is doubled, the volume is halved (closed container).
What is Charles's law?
Does Charles's law reflect an inverse or proportional relationship?
- The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature for a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure.
Is Gay Lussacs's law a proportional or inverse relationship?
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature for a fixed amount of gas at a constant volume.
Does Avogadro's law illustrate an inverse or proportional relationship?
What is standard temperature and pressure?
0° C (273.15K) and 1 atm (760 mmHg)
What is the combined gas law?
- If any of the variables of pressure, volume, or temperature is also held constant, the law becomes Boyle’s, or Charles’, or Gay-Lussac depending on the additional constant.
What is the ideal gas law?
What is the Value of R if pressure is given in ATM?
What is R if pressure is given in mmHg?
What is dalton's law of partial pressure?
Partial pressure: The contribution of a given gas in a mixture to the total pressure of the gas P total = P gas 1 + P gas 2 + …..
Each gas creates pressure as if the other gases weren’t present
When water changes from a liquid to a gas, it is a(n) _________ process.
When water changes from a liquid to a solid it is a(n) _________ process?
Define boiling point.
The temperature when liquid gas phases are at equilibrium.
If the atmospheric pressure rises what effect does this have on boiling point?
↑ BP with ↑ atmospheric pressure.
If we add 10 g of NaCl to 100 ml's of aqueous solution, is NaCl the solute, or the solvent?
- Solute: a substance dissolved in a liquid.
- Solvent: the liquid in which another substance is dissolved.
What is Solubility?
The maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of a solvent at a specified temperature.
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