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what is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
a theory is a set of related assumptions from which scientists can make a testable predictions.
a hypothesis is a specific informed and testable prediction of the outcome of a particular set of conditions
what are the key points of the following scientific tasks?
- observe- to observe a phenomenon
- predict- develop expectations about an observed phenomenom
- test- scientists test their hypothesis by selecting a number of established research methods along with appropriate measure techniques
- Interpret- scientists use mathematical techniques to interpret the results and determine whether they are significant not just a matter of chance and whether they closely fit the prediction.
- Communicate- scientists report their hypothesis and describe conditions of their research design and the conditions of their study summarize their results and share their conslusion
what is the difference between science and pseudoscience?
- Pseudoscience is claims presented as scientific not supported by evidence obtained by a scientific method and
- science is tested for evidence to support their claim
Researchers define a problem and variable of interest but makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anything
Measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another not designed to show causation
A research design that includes independent, dependent variables, and random assignment of participants to control and experimental groups and conditons.
Research method similar to an experimental design except that it makes use of naturally occuring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects to groups
Quasi- Experimental Research
A property that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions to determine it causes the predicted outcome of the experiment (the cause)
In an experiment the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation (the effect)
Variable whose influence on the dependent variable can not be seperated from the independent variable being examined
A group of research participants who are treated in exactly the same manner as the experimentel group, except that they do not receive the independent variable, or treatment
A group consisting of those participating who will receive the treatment or whatever is predicted to change behavior
Method used to assign participants to different research conditons
Randomization ( random assignment)
studies in which participants do not know the experimental condition (group) to which they have been assigned.
Single Blind Technique
Studies in which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assingned to the experimental or control group
Double Blind Technique
Results that occur when the behavior of the participants is influenced by the experimenters knowledge of who is in the control group and who is the experimenters control group
Experimenter Expectancy Effects
A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance
The entire group a researcher is interested in
Subsets of the population studied in a research project
A research sample that accurately affects the population of people one is studing
written or oral accounts of thoughts, actions, and feelings
Strengths: easy to use, easy to collect from a large number of people at once
Limitations: People are not honest about answers.
Objective observation of actions in either natural or lab settings.
Strenghts: Less susceptible to social desirability bias
Limitations: Time required to train coders and conduct coding participants may modify their behavior
Data collection of bodily responses under certain conditions
Llimitations: Specialized training on expensive equipment, training on how to collect measurements and on data interpretations
What ar ethe ethical guide lines that researchers must adhere to when conducting research with humans and animals including the guidelines that address the treatment of animal subjects, respect for human participants, privacy, debriefing, and the use of deception
Treatment of animal subjects: ethical and humane conditions must exist throughtout the entire process
1. informed consent: tell participants what the study is about what they will do and how long the study is, known risk and benefits, whom to contact with questions, they can withdraw at any time.
2.Respect for persons: Safeguard the dignity and autonomy of individuals and take and have extra precautions when dealing with children.
3. Benefience: inform participants of costs and benefits, minimize the cost and maximize the benefits.
4. Privacy and Confudentiality: Protect the privacy of the participant.
5. justice: Benefits and costs must be distributed equally among participants.
The explanation of th epurpose of a study folowing data collection.
Use of deception: must be avoided whenever possible can be used only if its the research design must be followed by debriefing and must be fully justified
What is the main purpose for using descripive and inferential statistics?
Statistics: Raw data are difficult to interpret. They are a bunch of numbers. It helps to have some way to organize and give it a meaing.
Descriptive: Measures used to describe and summarize research
Inferential: Analyze data that allow us to test hypothesis and make inference as to how likel a sample score is to occur in a population
How dos job burnout develop?
Stress, lack of support, and negative self-evaluation, it will impair job performance and personal well being.
How can job burnout be studied?
Psychometric researchers apply research methods, collect data, and assess psychological phenomenom
How can psychological intervene to prevent or combat job burn out?
Develop a standarized mesure to bring in a work place and address the concerns of the work place.