Pharm ch 40

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Pharm ch 40
2013-02-08 15:33:01
Pharm test

Pharm test 3
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  1. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs)
    infection caused by HIV, which weakens the host's immune system, giving rise to opportunistic infections by pathogens that normally coexist in the body with minimal health affects
  2. Antibodies
    • immunoglobulin molecules that have an antigen-specific animo acid sequence and are synthesized by the humoral immune system in response to exposure to a specific antigen
    • the purpose of which is to attack and destroy molecules of this antigen
  3. Antigen
    • a substance, usually a protein, that is foreign to a host specifically with that antibody
    • allergen is a specific type of antigen that causes allergic reactions
  4. Antiretroviral drug
    a specific term for antiviral drugs that work against retroviruses such as HIV
  5. Antiviral drugs
    a general term for drugs that destroy viruses, either directly or indirectly by suppressing their replication
  6. Cell-mediated immunity
    • one of the two major parts of the immune system 
    • consists of nonspecific immune responses by mediated primarily by T lymphocytes and other immune system cells, but not by antibody-producing cells
  7. DNA
    • nucleic acid composed of nucleotide units that contains molecules of sugar deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and purine and pyrimidine bases
    • transmit genetic info and found primarily in the cell nucleus
  8. fusion
    process by which two viruses attach themselves to or fuse with, the cell membranes of host cells, in preparation for infecting the cell for purposes of viral replication
  9. genome
    • complete set of genetic material of any organisms
    • it may consist of multiple chromosomes in higher organisms, a single chromosome, as in bacteria; or on or two DNA or RNA molecules, as in viruses
  10. herpesviruses
    several different types of viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae that cause various forms of herpes infection
  11. host
    organisms that is infected with a microorganisms
  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    the retrovirus that causes AIDs
  13. humoral immunity
    • one of the two major parts of the immune system
    • consists of specific immune responses in the form of antigen-specific antibodies produced from B lymphocytes 
  14. immunoglobins
    • synonymous with immune globulines
    • glycoproteins synthesized and used by the humoral immune system to attack and kill any substance that is foreign to the body
    • one with an antigen-specific animo acid sequence is called an antibody and is able to recognize and inactivate molecules of a specific antigen
  15. influenza viruses
    • the viruses that cause influenza, a acute viral infection of the respiratory tract
    • three types: A, B, C
    • currently medications are available only to treat types A and B
  16. Nucleic acids
    • a general term referring to DNA and RNA
    • contain the genetic material of all living organisms, which is passed to future generations during reproduction 
  17. nucleoside
    a structural component of nucleic acid molecules that consists of a purine and pyrimidine base attached to a sugar molecules
  18. nucleotide
    a nucleoside that is attached to a phosphate unit, which makes up the side chain "backbone" of a DNA or an RNA molecules 
  19. opportunistic infections
    infections caused by any type of microorganism that occur in an immunocompromised host but normally wouldn't occur in an immunocompetent host
  20. protease
    an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid structure of protein molecules by chemically cleaving the peptide bonds that link together the individual amino acids
  21. replication
    • any process of duplication or reproduction
    • used most often to describe the entire process sof viral reproduction which occurs only inside the cells of an infected host organism 
  22. retroviruses 
    • viruses belonging to the family Retroviridae
    • contain RNA as their genome and replicate using the enzyme reverse transcriptase
    • most clinically significant retrovirus is HIV
  23. Reverse transcriptase
    • an RNA-directed DNA polymerase enzyme
    • promotes the synthesis of DNA molecule from an RNA molecule, which is the reverse of the usual process 
  24. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • composed of nucleotide units that contain molecules of the sugar ribose, phosphate groups, and purine and pyrimidine bases
    • transmit genetic information and are found in both the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells
  25. virion
    a mature virus particle
  26. viruses
    • the smallest known class of microorganisms
    • can only replicate inside host cells