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What is a variance?
Special permission granted to the owner of a parcel of land waiving certain specific restrictions when the enforcement of these would impose an unusual or unreasonable hardship on the owner.
What is conditional use?
Permitted only if specified conditions are met, public hearing has been held, and approval has been given by the local government body. Granted normally if it considered public interest.
What is slope for storm drains
What is min. slope for surface drain
what is slope for open land drainage (some ponding)?
what is slope for planted areas, large paved areas?
what is slope for parking areas?
what is slope for car ramps - down (grade separations)?
What is max slope for pedestrian walks and drainage ditches
what is slope for streets, paved drives?
- 10% max
- 17% for trucks in low gears
What is max slope for short ramps
What is max slope for grassed area
What is max slope for planted banks and unretained earth, if stable and surface is protected (ivy, rocks, etc)
50% - also depends on soil stability
what is slope for sanitary sewers?
0.4% to 1.4% - depends on pipe size
What is proper slope away from a building edge?
Sanitary sewer lines should never slope less than
Activity in slope under 4% (level)
Appear nearly level to the eye, and are suitable for construction and outdoor activities
Activity slope between 4%-10% (easy)
Suitable for most construction activities
Activity with slopes over 10%
More difficult to use and consequently more expensive for building construction because of complicated foundations and utility connections
What is most successful in stopping noise?
Building a solid mass
What is the space between a building and outermost secured perimeter?
What are methods of estimating volume of cut and fill?
Contour area method, end area method, calculation by grid
What is a covenant?
Restriction of the deed which regulates land use, aesthetic qualities, etc.
What is deed restrictions?
Restrictions on the deed that place limitations on the use of the property. Restrictive covenants are an example. Usually initiated by the developers- those who determined what the land would be used for, divided into plots. Come with property and usually can't be changes or removed by subsequent owners.
1937- designated the Vieux Carre, a historic district in 1937 adopting mechanisms from Charleston
1931- first city in US to establish a "historic district" in 1931 as a response to attrition of aging building stock through theft, demolition and neglect.
Influenced by Radburn, NJ plan. Features a series of underpasses that promote travel on foot throughout the community.
Late 1920-1930s- part of city was acquired and restored, preserved, reconstructed by what is now the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation led by Rev. W.A.R. Goodwin and financed by John D. Rockefeller
- 1928 plan developed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright. First plan to take on planning for pedestrians and automobiles. Use of underpass to allow pedestrian traffic to pass under cars traffic. Intended to prevent accidents and separate traffic types. Only one underpass constructed.
- -landmark based on circulation network that included separate pedestrian access and car traffic
Beginning in 1852, the Baron Haussmann's urbanization program involved leveling entire quarters to make way for wide avenues lined with neo-classical stone buildings of bourgeoisie standing.
What is the organization pattern formed the basis development in ancient, classical rome?
- -precinctual patterns allow growth in any direction and are flexible, compact, and efficient
- -medieval square of florence
- -link between town center and river
- -renaissance had first expression
- -connection of piazza San Marco is extension of maritime space of grand canal
- -primary center of city - with system of subcenters which recall the dominant center
- -development of classical Rome was based on the gradual accumulation of self-contained building complexes. Each served a distinct activity and interrelated with its neighbors. Thus, Rome achieved a rational order through a precintual arrangement of separate, balanced components.
- -based on gradual accumulation of self-contained bldg complexies
- -held together by sheer mass of its individual elements
- -Classical Rome: compression
- -Baroque Rome: tension
Based on grid system
Example of Baroque planning approach, L'Enfant
Based on grid system. Wards of 40 houses are bounded by major streets with each section having a public square.
Employed to support existing foundations or walls being extended downward to the level of a new, deeper foundation. Two most common methods of underpinning involve needle beams or pipe cylinders with hydraulic jacks.
Diagonal braces used to brace the sheeting to resist the soil pressure. Where soil conditions permit, tiebacks into the surrounding soil or rock can be used in place of rakers- this keeps excavation clear and more accessible.
A type of sheeting in which a narrow trench is filled with a slurry or soupy mixture, of bentonite clay and water, which resists the pressure of the earth. After the trench excavation is completed, reinforcing steel is lowered into the trench, concrete is placed from bottom up and the slurry is pumped out.
Consists of vertical planks which fit tightly together and are driven into the earth to form a barrier before starting excavation.
Wide flange steel sections driven vertically into the earth at 5 to 10ft intervals to a depth lower than that of the proposed excavation.
What are wellpoints used for?
Used to dewater an excavation.
Wood boards are placed horizontally between soldier beams as the earth is removed.
If soils close to ground are adequate, then shallow spread footings are used: name some shallow foundations
- Column footing
- Wall footing
- Combined or cantilever footing
- Mat footing or raft footing- when conditions are poor
- Boat footing - similar to mat but deeper; placed at depth such that weight of soil removed from excavation is equal to load of buildings and thus little or no new loaf is added to underlying soil.
If upper soils has insufficient bearing capacity to support spread footings; name some deep foundations
- Pile: wood, steel, concrete or composite of two materials; driven into ground by steam, air or diesel hammer or high pressure water jets (rarely advised)
- Drilled pile
- Drilled caisson: transfers the load by end bearing- often belled
- Caissons and cofferdams: box-like structures where very wet or soft soils are encountered- may be timber, steel or concrete
- Underground water generally flows slowly
- Ground water table fluctuates seasonally
- Permeable material through which water flows is an aquifier
- Generally used in gypsum concrete roof deck construction
- used in gyp concrete construction
What does 100 fpm wind speed feel like?
What does less than 50 fpm wind speed feel like?
What does 250 fpm or more wind speed feel like?
Drafty and annoying
- Continuous lines that connect multiple points having same elevation.
- Represent proposed land form modifications.
- Never split two.
- When soft soil is encountered- remove it and replace with compacted fill- can be on site or imported soil.
- Usually compacted 6" layers by sheepsfoot rollers.
- Where compaction is required/anticipated, typical samples are obtained and subjected to a laboratory test know as Proctor test to determine soils optimum moieties content and density.
- Properly compacted fill is often suitable for the support of building footings as well as walks and pavements.
If wind velocity doubles, the wind pressure will increase?
Water and gas lines operate?
Sanitary sewer and storm drains operate?
Flow by gravity and flow only partially full
what is cluster-type arrangement?
- -features a concentrated grouping of residential units surrounded by open space
- -the idea of clustering is to place units in a tight group by reducing lot sizes, and thereby end up with large common areas of open space that can be developed or simply enjoyed in a commercial way
- -in the cluster plans, the lengths of streets and utility runs are generally reduced and most residential units ajoin some open space - for these reasons, such development is most suitable in a hilly area, an area defined by irregular contours
- -units may be sited in a hilly area
- -units may be sited on a moderately sloping land, while more steeply land is left for common open space
what are some features of soutwest desert construction and design?
- -deeply recessed openings
- -horizontal louvers
what is max slope per ADA?
- 1:12; flatter is preferable
- -ramps other than those used by the handicapped are usually limited to a slope of 1:8
what is balancing the site?
The amount of soil removed from one portion of a site is equal to the amount added to another to avoid having to truck soil to or from another job site.
What are benchmarks?
Identify the elevation of a single point; however they identify an existing element that serves as as a reference point.
what is a spot elevation?
- -an elevation symbol indicated on a grading plan and identifying the proposed elevation at a single location
- -typically used to identify the elevation of key structures such as building corners, manholes, catch basins
what is compost?
When mixed with nitrogen and soil, is used as an organic fertilizer. Principal purpose in making compost is to permit the organic materials to become crumbly and to reduce the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the material.
what is humus?
well-decomposed, more or less stable part of the organic matter found in mineral soils
what is mulch?
generally used to help conserve moisture, control temperature, prevent surface compaction, reduce runoff and erosion, improve soil structure, or control weeds
what is muck?
Combination of soil and water, having a higher mineral content than peat. It is decomposed to the point where the original plant parts cannot be identified.
What are geotextiles?
- -high performance turf reinforcement mats
- -turf reinforcement mats
- -erosion control blankets
- -nonwoven geotextiles
- -woven geotextiles
- -soil reinforcement geotextiles
- -silt fence fabrics
- -paving products
what are 4 soil contamination remedies?
- 1) VAPOR EXTRACTION: clean up technology used to remiate the unsaturated zone
- 2) BIODEGRATION: naturally occuring biodegration means degradation of organic compounds by ingredients microbes without artificial enhancement
- 3) IN-SITU INCINERATION:
- 4) PHOTOLYSIS: chemical decomposition by the action of radiant energy (as light)
what are 3 primary soil remediation strategies?
- 1) destruction or alteration of contaminants
- 2) extraction or seperation of contaminants from environmental media
- 3) immobilization of contaminants
what are some ground water remediation?
- -extraction/treatment - most commonly used to remediate groundwater
- -in situ aeration
- -biological barriers/filters
- -gas chromatograph
name 4 soil type categories?
- -particles under 0.002mm
- -smooth and floury when dry
- -plastic and sticky when wet
- -expands when wet
- -particles from 0.002 to 0.005mm in dia
- -grains are invisible but can be smooth
- -stable when dry or damp, but unstable when wet
- -swells and heaves when frozen
- -particles from 0.05 to 2mm in dia
- -finest grains visible to human eye
- -particles over 2mm in dia
- -sands and gravels excellent for construction loads, drainage, sewage drain fields
what is a percolation test?
Test to determine the suitability of soil for an on site sewage disposal.
building efficiency formula
building efficiency=net area/ gross area
what are soil treatments to increase bearing capacity?
- 2)engineered fill
- 4)densification - vibration, compaction
- 5)surcharging - preloading ground with fill
- 6)mixing - sand or gravel mixed with less stable soil
what are some bearing capacity tests?
- -borings: core borings, SPT (standard penetration test), Auger borings, wash borings
- -test pits
- -soil load test
what is soil sieve analysis (or gradation test)?
- -practice or procedure used (commonly used in civil engineering) to assess the particle size distribution (also called gradation) of a granular material
- -a sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials such as sands, crushed rock, clays, granite, feldspars, coal, soil
- -not provided in writter subsurface report
conversion for 1 square yard
conversion for 1 cubic yard
27 cubic ft
how many sf is one acre?
what is F.A.R?
floor area ration = gross floor area / site area
-efficiency factor has no bearing
what is albedo?
- -fraction of radiant energy received on a surface that is reflected
- -ranges from 0.0 (flat black surface that absorbs all energy and reflects nono) to 1.0 (mirror reflecting all energy)
what do zoning ordinances do?
- -regulate land usuage, function, size, and certain exterior aspects
- -segregrate uses
- -control density
- -parking and loading requirements
- -heights, sizes, and set backs
- -site layout and coverage
- -signage and landscaping
- -water retention and detention
- Image of the city (1918-1984) (published 1960)
- -studied how users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate cities
- -ex. Boston, Jersey City, Los Angeles
- -users understood surroundings by:
- 1)paths: streets, sidewalks, trails
- 2)edges: perceived boundaries, walls bldgs, shorelines
- 3)districts: areas that people have common identifying character
- 4)nodes: focal points, intersections, strategic centers of interest
- 5)landmarks: identifiable objects serve as reference points - similar to nodes, but can not be entered
- 6)imageability: quality of the physical environment that creates a strong image in the mind of the observer
- -Une Cite Industrielle (1918)
- -french architect
- -one of the first to emphasize the concept of zoning
- -Garden City concept reform movement as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution
- -realized several Garden Cities in Great Britain at beginning of 20c.
- -perfect blend of cities and nature
- -ex. Letchworth Garden City (north of London), Welwyn Garden City
what is new urbanism?
- -american urban design movement that arose in 1980s
- -goal is to reform all aspects of real estate development and urban planning from urban retrofits to suburban infill
- -new uranist and neighborhoods are designed to contain a diverse range of housing and jobs and to be walkable
- -also known as traditional neighborhood design, neotraditional neighborhood design, and transit-oriented development
- -founded in 1999 by Michael E. Arth known as new pedestiranism
- -support planning for open space, appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. strategies to reduce traffic, increase supply of affordable housing, rein in urban sprawl
- -historic preservation safe streets, green bldgs, renovations of brownfields
what is smart growth?
An urban planning and transporation theory that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl and advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, streets that work for everyone, mixed-use development with a range of housing choices. Smart growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-term focus. Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place; expand the range of transportation, employement, and housing choices; equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development; preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources;promote public health
name 4 road types?
- 1)local streets (low capacity, access to site and bldgs)
- 2)collector streets (connect local to arterial)
- 3)arterial streets (2-3 lanes, street parking not allowed)
what is amortization?
- -process of decreasing or accounting for an amount over a period of time
- -amortization (business) the allocation of a lump sum amount to different time periods, particularly for loans and other forms of finance, including related interest or other finance charges
- -also used in the context of zoning regulations and describes the time in which a property owner has to relocate when the property use constitutes a pre-existing nonconforming use under zoning regulations
what is an amortization schedule?
a table detailing each periodic payment on a loan (typically a mortgage) as generated by an amortization calculator
how to calculate a parking lot area?
- 400sf/car for parking spaces, drives and walkways
- 300sf/car for parking space and drives
what is city beautiful movement?
- -reform movement in North America
- -urban planning of 1890s-1900s
- -intent of beautification monumental grandeur in cities
- -most closely associated to Chicago, Detroit, washington DC
what is perugia?
- -umbrian medieval hill town
- -central square with its ancient and beloved fountain
what is TODI?
diagram emphasizes interlocking squares are firmly postioned between vistas
what are two types of property rights?
- 1) permissive: things you can do
- 2) prohibitive: things you can't do
what are 7 major costs area?
- 100- foundations
- 200- building shell
- 300- interiors
- 400- conveying systems
- 500- mech and elec
- 600- general conditions and profits
- 900- site development
what activities take place with slopes of 4%?
what activities take place with slopes between 4-10%?
what activities take place with slopes over 10%?
what activities take place with slopes over 50%?
subject to erosion
- 10db: normal breathing
- 20-30db: soft whisper
- 40db: hum of small electric motor
- 50db: typical kitchen
- 60db: normal conversation
- 70db: normal office
- 90-100db: rock band
- 100db: subway train
- 160db: jet airplane
what is occupancy load for assembly areas, concentrated use (without fixed seats), auditoriums, churches, stadiums?
7 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for assembly areas, less concentrated use, conference rooms, dinning rooms, drinking establishments, exhibits, gymnasiums, lounges?
15 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for classrooms?
15-20 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for dorms?
50 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for dwellings?
300 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for hospitals?
80 net sf per occupant load
what is occupancy load for hotels and apartments?
200 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for kitchens (commercial)?
200 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for library reading rooms?
50 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for offices?
100 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for vocational shops?
50 net sf per occupant
what is occupancy load for shops and stores?
30-50 net sf per occupant