AP World Period Four Key Concepts 4.1-4.3

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AP World Period Four Key Concepts 4.1-4.3
2013-02-09 22:22:32
Unit four key concepts

Key concepts from 1450-1750 unit four 4.1-4.3
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  1. What are the dates and
    the theme of the AP time period
    associated with the key concept “Globalizing Networks of
    Communication and Exchange”?
    Global interactions 1450-1750
  2. What regions experienced an
    intensification of regional trade networks between 1450 and 1750CE?
    The Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara, and overland Eurasia
  3. Where did European technological
    developments in cartography and navigation originate?  List some examples.
    in the classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds
  4. Characteristics of Chinese maritime
    reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Official Chinese maritime activity expanded into the Indian Ocean region with the naval voyages left by Mind Admiral Zheng He, which enhanced Chinese prestige.
  5. Characteristics of Portuguese maritime
    reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Portuguese developments of a school for navigation led to increased travel to and trade with West Africa, and resulted in the construction of a global trading-post empire
  6. Characteristics of Spanish maritime
    reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Spanish sponsorship of 1st Columbian and other voyages across Atlantic and Pacific increased European interest in transoceanic travel/trade
  7. Characteristics of North Atlantic
    maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    • Crossings for fish/settlements continued
    • Euros wanted more routes to Asia
  8. Characteristics of Oceanic and
    Polynesian maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Not affected much because of little Euro influence in Pacific
  9. Who is cited as having facilitated the
    global circulation of goods between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Royal Euro monopoly companies.
  10. What role did silver play in the global
    economy between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Taken from American colonies by Euro companies to trade in Asia for goods
  11. How did regional markets in Afro-Eurasia
    continue to flourish between 1450 and 1750CE?
    using established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping services developed by European merchants
  12. What characterized European merchants’
    role in Asian trade?
    transporting goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia or the Indian Ocean region
  13. What were some new methods used by
    European rulers to control their local and colonial economies?
    mercantilism influenced joint-stock companies; new Euro methods rulers used to control domestic/colonial economies and by European merchants to compete in global trade
  14. What characterizes the Atlantic system
    between 1450 and 1750CE?
    movement of goods, wealth, and free and paid laborers, mixing of African, American, and European cultures/peoples.
  15. What is the Columbian Exchange?
    The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres
  16. What diseases and vermin were
    transferred from Europe to the Americas? 
    What was the result?
    smallpox, measles, and influenza, endemic in the E Hemisphere among Amerindian pop. and  transfer of vermin; mosquitoes and rats
  17. Which foods and cash crops moved during
    the Columbian Exchange?  From where to
    • American foods;potatoes, maize or manioc to Europe, Asia, and Africa
    • Cash crops: Sugar tobacco
    • Afro-Eurasian fruit trees, grains, sugar, and domesticated animals, horses, pigs or cattle by Europeans to 'murika, others from African slaves (such as okra and rice)
  18. Which domestic animals were part of the
    Columbian Exchange?
    horses, pigs or cattle by Europeans to 'murika,
  19. How did the Columbian Exchange affect
    populations in Afro-Eurasia?
    a benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.
  20. How did European colonization affect the
    environments of colonized areas?  Why?
    the physical environment through deforestation and soil depletion
  21. What cultural exchanges took place
    between 1450 and 1750CE?
    spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief systems and practices
  22. Which syncretic and new forms of
    religion developed between 1450 and 1750CE?
    • Vodun in the Caribbean, the cults of saints in Latin America, or Sikhism in South Asia
    • Sunni and Shi’a traditions of Islam intensified
    • Christianity diversified from diffusion and  Reformation
  23. What are some examples of innovations in
    visual and performing arts that occurred between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Renaissance art Euro, mini paintings Middle East and South Asia, woodblock prints in Japan, post-Conquest codices in Mesoamerica
  24. What are some examples of popular
    authors and literary forms that accompanied the expansion of literacy between
    1450 and 1750CE?
    Shakespeare, Cervantes, Sundiata, Journey to the West or kabuk
  25. What are the dates and
    the theme of the AP time period
    associated with the key concept “New Forms of Social
    Organization and Modes of Production”?
    Global interactions 1450-1750
  26. What changes occurred in the area of peasant
    labor between 1450 and 1750?
    • Peasant labor intensified
    • frontier settlements in Russian Siberia, cotton textile production in India or silk textile production in China
  27. What are the defining features of
    African slavery between 1450 and 1750?
    continued in traditional slave use in households and export of slaves to the Mediterranean/Indian Ocean
  28. What caused the demand for African
    slaves in the Americas?
    growth of the plantation economy
  29. What is “coerced labor”?  List some examples.
    chattel slavery, indentured servitude, encomienda and hacienda systems, or the Spanish adaptation of the Inda mit’a
  30. What new political and economic elite
    groups formed between 1450 and 1750?
    Manchus in China, Creole elites in Spanish America, European gentry or urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities
  31. Why did the power of existing elite
    groups fluctuate between 1450 and 1750?  List some examples
    • confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies
    • zamindars in the Mughal Empire, nobility in Europe or daimyo in Japan
  32. What notable gender and family
    restructuring occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    demographics changes in Africa, European men on Southeast Asian women for conducting trade in that region or the smaller size of European families
  33. What caused the new ethnic and racial
    classifications in the Americas?  List
    some examples of these new classifications.
    • massive demographic changes in the Americas
    • mestizo, mulatto or creole
  34. What are the dates and
    the theme of the AP time period associated
    with the key concept “State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion”?
    Global Interactions – 1450-1750
  35. What are 2 primary ways in which rulers
    displayed power and legitimized their rule? 
    List some examples.
    • arts to display political power; monumental architect, visual arts
    • religious ideas to legitimize their rule; divine rights in Euro, human sacrifice in Aztec
  36. What trend characterized states’
    treatment of different ethnic and religious groups between 1450 and 1750?  List some examples.
    • utilized their economic contributions/ limit ability to challenge authority 
    • Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects, Manchu policies toward Chinese or the Spanish creation of a separate ―República de Indios
  37. How did rulers maintain centralized
    control over populations and resources between 1450 and 1750?
    bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers
  38. How did rulers generate revenue between
    1450 and 1750?
    tribute collection and tax farming
  39. What did imperial expansion rely upon
    between 1450 and 1750?
    increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres
  40. Where were new trading posts established
    between 1450 and 1750?  What additional
    regions were affected by these?
    Africa and Asia profitable for the rulers/ merchants in new global trade networks; affecting interior states of West and Central Africa
  41. What land empires expanded dramatically
    between 1450 and 1750?
    Manchus, Mughals, Ottomans Russians. European states: Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, France and Britain
  42. What are some examples of competition
    over trade routes that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    Omani-European rivalry in Indian Ocean, piracy in the Caribbean
  43. What are some examples of state
    rivalries that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    Thirty Years War or the Ottoman-Safavid conflict
  44. What are some examples of local
    resistance that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    bread riots