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Which of the following describes the geographical setting in which early civilization was most likely to emerge?
A. An open, grassy plain with plenty of room and food for livestock
B. Rolling hills that provided vantage points from which to scout for enemy invasions
C. A temperate river delta that flooded regularly, resulting in fertile soil for crops
D. Dense jungle with edible plants and game enough for hunting and gathering
- C:A temperate river delta that flooded regularly, resulting in fertile soil for crops.
- The earliest civilizations were in the so-called Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers provided ideal conditions fro agriculture to emerge, and regular crops provided enough respite fro the grind of daily hunting and gathering that people could devote time and attention to the pursuits of civilization - art, religion, learning - that require leisure time. The locations described in the other answers were all viable habitats for humans, but agriculture is considered a prerequisite for the development of civilization.
Which of the following groups of Middle Eastern tribes are credited with bringing the concept of monotheism in the world?
- Today's Jews worship the one God their Hebrew ancestors worshiped 3,000 years ago. At that time, their neighbors and other groups still practiced polytheism, the worship of more than one god. Christians and Muslims derived their monotheistic concepts from the Jewish, or Hebrew, philosophy of one God. The other groups mentioned all worshiped multiple gods when the Hebrews developed monotheism.
I. belief in recarnation (rebirth after death)
II. practice a caste system, with four social grps, membership in which is determined by birth
III. drive to attain enlightment, which brings freedom rebirth
IV. belief in the concept of karma, that one's fate is earned by one's past deeds
The tenets listed above are most accurately attributed to which of the following belief systems?
- While Hinduism shares with Buddhism - a belief in karma and in the possibility of enlightenment, which brings relief from the burden of reincarnation, Buddhists do not practice the caste system. Confucianism is a philosophical system practiced in China that emphasizes respect for others, especially authority. Islam does not share any tenets listed in the question with Hinduism.
Which of the following modern disciplines was NOT influenced by the civilization of ancient Greece?
- Anthropology-the study of peoples-was not founded as a discipline until the twentieth century. Today's philosophy (Aristotle, Socrates, Plato), theater (Sophocles, Aristophanes, tragedy as a form), and mathematics (particularly geometry) were all greatly influenced by the ancient Greeks, as were art, architecture, medicine, and many other disciplines. The Greeks were also our predecessors in practicing an early form of democracy.
Which of the following empires splintered from the Egyptian empire and established a vigorous trade in precious metals, while retaining many characteristics of Egyptian civilization?
- Originally dominated for centuries-both politically and culturally-by the Egyptians, the people of Kush (aka Nubia), in what is now Sudan, became a powerful force in about 750 BCE. They were advantageously located on trade routes in no. Africa and benefited from rich gold and emerald mines in their land. The land also yielded iron ore and usable iron, so they also had a thriving iron industry. The Babylonian civilization preceded the Kush and could not be considered a splinter kingdom of Egypt, nor could the Phoenician or the Mayan.
Which of the following was a contributing to the decline of the Roman Empire?
A. the size of the empire forced the hiring of mercenaries for its defense forces
B. the empire's public education system failed for lack of tax revenues
C. corruption invalidated the results of Roman elections
D. widespread starvation made the people receptive to new leadership
- A: the size of the empire forced the hiring of mercenaries for its defense forces
- Rome overextended its empire, necessitating the use of mercenaries, whose loyalties tend not to run past the last paycheck. In addition, it suffered from political instability (in its last stage, the Empire split into two parts) and from an economy that depended on tribute from its conquered peoples. Any of the other factors could lead to the downfall of an empire, but the Roman Empire had not public school system (b); its elections were limited to the wealthy few (c); and starvation was not a problem in Rome (d).
Which line in the table below correctly places terminology from both Japanese feudalism and European feudalism?
Line Japanese European
1 peasants serfs
2 daimyo shogun
3 samurai vassals
4 chivalry bushido
A. Line 1
B. Line 2
C. Line 3
D. Line 4
- There are many parallels between Japanese Feudalism and European Feudalism, but the terminology used to describe them differs. Each had a decentralized power structure, with the King (Shogun) being just slightly higher status than a powerful Lord (Daimyo). The Lords/Daimyos were served by Vassals or Knights (Samurai), who lived by a code of honor called chivalry (bushido). A the bottom of the social heap were the serfs (peasants), who worked in return for protection.
Which of the following was the most powerful and wealthy force in medieval Europe?
- The Roman Catholic church was much more wealthy and powerful than any individual lord, or even king, in medieval Europe. The feudal system that characterized medieval times had a decentralized power structure, in which each individual lord (b) controlled by his own fiefdom and owed only loose allegiance to a king (a), who might not have as many resources (state, d) at his disposal as a wealthy lord did. The church, on the other had, was united (under the Pope), wealthy, and the power sole source of access to heaven as well as to books and education.
Which of the following was primarily responsible for the introduction of spices and other Asian goods to medieval Europe?
A. the Crusades
B. Christopher Columbus
C. the Phoenicians
D. the Vikings
- For almost 200 yrs, starting around 1100 CE, wave after wave of Crusaders (a) left Europe for the Middle-East, in an attempt to free Jerusalem from the Muslims. While they were on their journeys, they learned abut the spices from India that so deliciously masked the flavors and aromas of spoiled meat, which was common prior to the discover of year-round refrigeration techniques. Both the Vikings (d) and the Phoenicians (c) were early seafarers, who sailed to much of the world prior to Columbus' voyages, but neither grp was responsible for the popularization of spices and other Asian goods.
Which of the following geographical features were the French searching for in their early explorations of North America?
A. the St. Lawrence River
B. the Great Lakes
C. the NW Passage
D. the Pacific Ocean
- Jacques Cartier was the 1st French explorer to search for the fabled NW Passage to India. In the course of his voyages, he sailed up the St. Lawrence River (a), laying claim to the land on behalf of France. The French did locate some of the Great Lakes (b), but that is not what they were searching for. They did not know about the Pacific Ocean (d), but rather thought there would be a passage, such as a river, that would provide a shortcut to India.
Which of the following Native American expires covered a land area characterized by diverse geographical features, from jungle coastline to highlands, with widespread and often competing power centers?
- The Maya controlled a far-flung empire that ranged from the jungles of the Yucatan to the mountains of Guatemala. Though there probably had been more cooperation in the past, by the time the Spanish arrived there was intense competition and warfare among the various power centers, each with its own ruler. The Aztec operated within a more restricted area in central Mexico. Their capital, Tenochitlan, was uniquely situated in the middle of a lake. The Inca controlled much of the west coast of So America, operating in a long, narrow strip of land between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mts. This unique geography led them to construct a highway system for faster transportation/communication w/ the far reaches of the empire as well as a sophisticated system of irrigated terraces on the slopes of the mts. The Iroquois occupied the NE part of what is now the US, and their geography ran more to hilly woodlands.
Which of the following best expresses one reason slavery became entrenched in the so. colonies prior to the Revolutionary War but near took hold in the no. colonies?
A. the so. colonies were settled primarily by Spain, which had no moral qualms about slavery; but the English, who abhorred slavery, settled in the no.
B. the so. colonies were settled primarily as penal colonies, with an anything-goes attitude; but the no. colonies were more strictly governed by England
C. geographically speaking, the so. colonies were closer to the rte the slave traders took from Africa; so so. slavery was more economically feasible
D. the geography of the no. colonies was less conducive to highly labor-intensive cash crop agriculture than were the so. colonies
- D: the geography of the no. colonies was less conducive to highly labor-intensive cash crop agriculture than were the so. colonies
- Those who settled in the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies did not see slavery as a righteous institution. Those who settled the so. colonies tended to be more interested in furthering their economic status than in religious freedom. Also, the so. climate was more conducive to the large plantations that made slavery economically feasible. Choice (c) is partially correct, in that the so. is closer to Africa but the statements in (a) and (b) are incorrect.
Which of the following pairs of colonies BEST reflect truly tolerant havens for religious freedom, rather than being devoted to the practice of only one brand of religion?
A. RI and PA
B. MA and NY
C. CT and NH
D. MD and virginia
- Roger Williams was expelled from MA for disagreeing with its religious leaders. He made his way to RI and est. that colony as the first to recognize the separation of church and state. William Penn, a Quaker, est. PA as a haven of tolerance for the religious beliefs of even non-Quakers and enshrined those principles in the colony's constitution. None of the other answer choices is correct. The states mentioned in (b),(c), and (d) were not est. as havens for religious freedom-seekers.
The Proclamation of 1763 was an unpopular edict that led to further unrest in the British colonies. Which of the following best represents the content of this proclamation?
A. colonists were forbidden to move west of the Appalachian Mts
B. colonists were required to pay for the housing of British troops
C. colonists were required to pay taxes on many imported goods
D. colonists were required to sign oaths of loyalty to the English king
- A: colonists were forbidden to move west of the Appalachian Mts
- After the end of the French and Indian War, England wanted to avoid angering the Native Americans in the newly acquired Ohio Valley and to keep the colonists where they could be controlled more easily. The Proclamation of 1763 forbade them to move west, thereby angering the colonists. This proclamation was the first in a string of edicts that inflamed rebellion, including those described in (b) and (c). Choice (d) does not describe an actual edict.
Which line in the table below best matches the name of an event in the Revolutionary War to an accurate description of the event's effect?
Line Events Effect
1 _Battle of Concord _caused massive
defection of Brit
2 _Battle of Saratoga _persuaded France
to ally w the
3 _Crossing the Delaware _captured badly
supplies for starving
4 _Battle of Yorktown _decimated
and prolonged the
A. Line 1
B. Line 2
C. Line 3
D. Line 4
- The Battle of Saratoga was a decisive victory for the revolutionaries and was all the impetus the French needed to join cause with the rebels against the Brit. This alliance proved to be a major turning point in the war. The Battle of Concord (a) usually linked with Lexington, was the first skirmish in the war. The crossing of the Delaware (c) led to much-needed victory but was not carried out to obtain food. The Battle of Yorktown (d) was a huge victory against the Brit, one that hastened the end of the war, not prolonged the war as stated in the answer choice.
Which of the following sums up the reasons the Articles of Confederation proved inadequate governing documents for the newly formed US?
A. they concentrated too much power in the hands of too few
B. they did not adequately protect the interests of minorities
C. they gave the fed govt too few powers
D. they did not give women the right to vote
- C: they gave the fed govt too few powers
- Among the powers not granted to the fed govt in the Articles of Confederation were the ability to raise money from the states (hence, no money to spend), the ability to regulate interstate trade,and the ability to conduct national foreign policy. Although thought by some to be true, none of the other issues stated in the answer choices [the concentration of power in the hands of few (a), the inadequate protection of minority grps interests (b) and the exclusion of women from voting (d)] was crucial to the debate over the governing documents.
The concept of Manifest Destiny, which was popular in the 19th century, is best exemplified by which of the following US actions?
A. Louisiana Purchase
B. impeachment of Pres Andrew Johnson
C. Civil war
D. Mexican-American war
- In 1845, a newspaper editor coined the phrase Manifest Destiny. Those 2 words described the American people's vision of themselves as destined to spread their political philosophy throughout the hemisphere. In particular, they saw the US as stretching from "sea to shining sea." The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 (a) greatly expaning US teritory, but prior to the coining of the term. Choices (b) and (c) do not relate to Manifest Destiny, but the Mexican American War was a thinly disguised land grab that helped fulfill that destiny.
After Pres Lincoln's assassination, his VP, Andrew Johnson, became pres. His plans for reconstruction of the Confederate states failed for which of the following reasons?
A.Congress thought Johnson's reconstruction plan too lenient to the south
B.Confederate states refused to grant full rights to the freed slaves
C. KKK organized effective resistance to reconstruction efforts
D. Lincoln's supporters in Congress blocked efforts to bring the confederate states back into the Union
- A: Congress thought Johnson's reconstruction plan too lenient to the south
- Johnson proposed a 10% plan, under which a state could be readmitted to the Union if 10% of the former rebels in the state vowed loyalty to the Union, but the so-called Radical Republicans blocked his plans, and then impeached him. The other choices not describe Johnson's problems accurately. The former Confederate states took every opportunity for the next 100 years to deny full rights to blacks (b), but that was not the core of Johnson's problems; instead it was a major reason why the republicans in Congress demanded that so. states ratify the 14th Amendment before they would be allowed back into the Union. KKK was a force of resistance (c), but not the cause of Johnson's failure, Lincoln's supporters mostly backed efforts to reunite the Union (d), as that had been Lincoln's main concern, unlike the Radical Republicans who wanted to punish the former Confederates.
Which of the following was a staple of the diet of the majority of the CA's Indians?
- CA's Indian tribes lived in a diverse array of habitats. They were hunters and gatherers, most of whom did not practice agriculture. Their various environments featured plentiful fish and game as well as numerous plant foods that provided daily sustenance. One of the important staples for most of the native peoples was acorns (b). CA has several varieties of native oak trees; and acorns can be prepared by cracking them open, leaching the bitter taste from the pounded pulp, and then using the resulting flour in a number of dishes, from soup to bread. Beef (a), mutton (c), and beets (d) were not staples of tribes' diets.
Which of the following was the primary reason Spain decided in 1768 to establish missions in CA?
A. Father Serra persuaded the king to help him save the native's souls
B. Juan Cabrillo had found evidence of gold deposits near the coast
C. Jose de Galvez convinced the king it was urgent to establish settlements before the English did
D. Spanish king wanted to expand the territories he would leave to his sons
- C: Jose de Galvez convinced the king it was urgent to establish settlements before the English did
- Jose de Galvez was the Visor General of New Spain. Although England had shown little interest in the land of Spanish called Alta CA, he persuaded the king that Spain needed to settle the land in order to prevent the English (and the Russians) from trying to claim the territory (c). Father Serra (a) was a member of the first settlement expedition, but not its instigator. Cabrillo (b) was the first explorer of CA, in 1542 and was not involved with the establishment of CA's missions. Choice (d), the Spanish king wanting to leave land to his sons, although true, was not a prime reason for the establishment of the missions.
Which of the following activities was introduced by the Spanish missionaries and later became a major economic force in CA?
D. gold mining
- The missionaries brought olive trees and orange trees w/ them when they came up from what is now Mexico. They also introduced wheat and barley to the area. Prior to their arrival, the CA Indians did not practice extensive agriculture. In addition, the missionaries brought the first livestock to CA. Tourism (a) was not a concern for the missionaries. Fishing (b) was practiced extensively by the native peoples before the missionaries arrived. Gold mining (d) was not introduced by the missionaries.
CA's native peoples began, after a time, to rebel against the conditions of their labor on the mission farms. Which of the following was the Spanish response to their revolts?
A. build pueblos
B. build more missions
C. build prisons
D. build presidios
- A presidio is a fort. As the Amerindian revolts grew in frequency and intensity, the Spanish inhabitants of the mission and the nearby pueblos (towns) began to retreat to the newly-constructed presidios for protection whenever rebellion threatened. Missions (b), pueblos (a), and presidios (d) played important roles in the establishment of Spanish culture in CA but missions and pueblos were not est. to counter the Amerindian revolts.
Which of the following accurately describes a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
A. freedom of Mexico from Spanish rule
B. US acquisition of land from Mexico
C. establishment of an independent CA
D. end of the Bear Flag Rebellion
- B: US acquisition of land from Mexico
- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo marked the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, the US acquired much land that had previously belonged to Mexico, including CA. Mexico gained independence from Spain (a) in 1821. Bear Flag Rebellion (d) was an extremely short-lived attempt to est. an independent CA state (c). It was ended by the arrival of US troops in the area.
Which of the following groups became most wealthy as a result of the Gold Rush?
A. early miners
B. later miners
C. law enforcement officials
- From the merchant who bought up all the digging supplies prior to publicizing the gold discovery, to Levi Strauss, who made his first denim pants for the miners, the ones who really made money from the gold rush were the merchants. The early miners (a) made more than the later miners (b), but striking it rich was strictly a hit-or-miss proposition even for those that arrived earliest. Law enforcement officials (c) were in short supply, though probably some took the opportunity to profit from their positions.
Which of the following best states the purpose of the Land Commission in the years following CA statehood?
A. to adjudicate the conflicts between Californios and US settlers who took their ranchos
B. to settle disputes between CA Indians and miners who had settles on their claims
C. to help settlers establish homesteads on vacant CA land
D. to resolve discrepancies in court records from the days of Mexican rule
- A: to adjudicate the conflicts between Californios and US settlers who took their ranchos
- Following statehood in 1850, many of the wealthy Californios who had been granted large ranchos by the Mexican govt lost their land to squatters who felt that they had the right to take land belonging to "Mexicans." The Californios had been promised they could remain on their land when it became part of the US. The Land Commission was est. to settle the Californios' claims, but it took years and much for the Californios to defend their property rights. Many of them lost their land. The CA Indians (b) were even less fortunate - every one of the dozens of treaties w/ the govt that guaranteed them land was broken, and their cultural heritage was all but destroyed. Choices (c) and (d) do not describe the purpose of the Land Commission.
Which of the following was the monopolistic industy that became known as "the octopus" as at the end of the 19th century?
- When the company that would become the So. Pacific Railroad persuaded Congress to provide assistance in bldg the transcontinental railroad, they took a huge risk. Congress rewarded the company, and its east coast counterpart, vast quantities of land along the rail right-of-way. This, coupled w/ the monopoly the co. enjoyed on all CA rail (and most other) transport, gave So. Pacific enormous wealth and power and the nickname "the octopus." CA came to resent the co. unrestricted ability to set prices and exercise other controls, and the resentment led CA to adopt a new progressive constitution meant to give power directly to the people.