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Which state has unicameral legislature?
Who wrote about the three types of Political Cultures?
What is state and Political Culture?
- Shared beliefs among people, about the role that government and citizens should play in the political system.
- Political Culture is the way that people evaluate elected officials.
What type of Political Culture is found in Texas?
- Traditionalistic and Individualistic
- Individualistic entered in the mid 1800's. It is also stronger in central parts of Texas.
What Political Culture is found in Mexico?
Traditionalistic government. They have a stratified hierarchy.
What similar views do subcultures hold?
- 1. A conservative view of government, limited government.
- 2. Individuals should do for themselves whatever possible.
- 3. Government should only do that which individuals cannot do for themselves.
- 4. Government should keep taxes low, limit social services, and limit the advancement of government.
How is party change related to P.C?
A change in political party does not mean that a change in political culture happened.
What is Moralistic P.C?
When government is seen as a positive force. Emphasizes the commonwealth, serving the community is the core of the political relationship.
What is Individualistic P.C?
- The best outcome, comes from everyone having heir own interests.
- Regulates private sector but only enough to make sure that everyone pursues their own self interests.
- Found in northern parts of U.S.
What are the three Political Cultures?
- 1. Moralistic
- 2. Individualistic
- 3. Traditionalistic
What is a Traditionalistic P.C?
- Legacy left by Plantation Economy of deep south.
- Keeps social classes stratified.
- Political participation limited to those who have resources.
- Found in former confederate states.
- Lowest voting range.
What are the four factors that partially explain the large migration of people to Texas in the last 40 years?
- 1. On average sunbelt states's population seems to be larger.
- 2. Proximity to Mexico, increased migration, this was also an economic opportunity. Trade between U.S and Mexico draws people to the state.
- 3. Late 1970's early 1980's oil boom.
- 4. Economic decline in the industrial Midwest.
During what time spam did party domination change in Texas?
1970-200. People brought different ideas.
What minority group accounts for half of the population growth?
By 2030 Hispanics are expected to make majority of the states population.
What percent of the population do A.A make up?
What percent of the population do Asian Americans make up?
- They used to be 2% but now they make up about 4-5% and growing but overall small percentage.
- In Houston area the have large political participation.
What was the overall growth and economic diversity?
- Up until the late 1970's the states economy was dependent on land.
- Cotton farming dominated from the 1820's to 1860's.
- Cattle became more economical after civil war.
- Oil became dominant economic activity after its discovery in East Texas in the early 20th century.
When did the state begin to diversify?
- In the las 30-40 years the states economy began to be less dependent on land and its cotton, cattle and oil.
- Since 1980's there has been a significant reconstructing of the states economy.
- The other main reason is high technological advancement.
- This increases trade.
What are the economic regions?
- East Texas
- Golf Coast
What makes up the East Texas economic region?
- Oil, timber, agriculture, ranching, and cattle feed
- (agriculture and oil have now declined)
What makes up the Plains economic region?
Dominated by agriculture, ranching and cattle feed.
What makes up the Golf Coast economic region?
- Manufacturing, Petrochemical industry, fishing, shipping and technology.
- This is a fairly diverse area; highest organized labor concentration is found here.
What makes up the Metroplex economic region?
- Financial center of the state, large banking, manufacturing and aerospace.
- This region has the most diversified economy in the state. Universities have an impact on economy.
What does a typical Constitution contain?
- 1. A preamble
- 2. Bill of Rights
- 3. Structure of government-
- Powers of executive, legislature and courts.
- Describe executive branch structure.
- Describe the organization and powers of local government.
- Local government exists because state creates them.
What is a Legislature Proposal?
- This is the most common method of amending the constitution.
- Proposal and Ratification.
- First legislature proposes then ratification is done by the people.
What are Popular Incentives?
- Public proposed amendments thru petition process.
- This is a way to go around legislature.
- Most popular issues dealt with are: Tax, abortion and gambling.
- This is a way of Direct Democracy.
- Often ran by interest groups.
What is a Referendum?
The, YES or NO of the public.
What is a Constitutional Convention?
- A proposition by legislature vote.
- They vote to say if a constitutional convention should be held.
What is Constitutional Commission?
- Legislature identifies issue that needs amending, studies it and brings forth proposal.
- This is mainly an add to the Legislator proposal.
What is the approximate length of U.S constitution?
About 8,000 words
What is the average length of state constitution?
- 36,000 words
- Most state constitutions are larger that U.S.
How often are constitutions amended?
- States constitutions are amended frequently.
- U.S constitution has been amended 27 times. First 10 are the Bill of Rights.
- Average state constitution is amended at least once every two years.
What does the U.S constitution contain?
- U.S has a very broad concept, powers and rights.
- State constitution is more detailed, cover policy. To change policy they need an amendment.
- The longer and more detailed states constitution the more likely there are interest groups involved in the amendment.
What are Enumerated or Expressed powers?
- Powers found in constitution.
- Ex: coin money, make treaties...
What are Implied powers?
Powers not listed in constitution but are necessary to carry out duties.
What are state powers?
- Some powers are denied to states.
- Ex: tax imports
What are Concurrent powers?
- These powers exist in national and state level
- Ex: national govt tax, state tax...
What is the Supremacy Clause?
U.S Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Federal and U.S laws are more powerful than state laws, based on Article 6.
How many constitutions have governed Texas?
What was the,1827 Constitution of Coahuila y Tejas?
- 1. Unicameral Legislature
- 2. Texas elected two representatives to provincial legislature.
- 3. Lacked Bill of Rights.
- 4. Catholicism
- 5. Slavery not recognized
- 6. Provisions regarding catholicism and slavery where ignored
- Many provisions in constitution are ignored.
The Republic of Texas Constitution of 1836.
- Historical change demanded a constitution.
- 1. Composite of the U.S constitutions and the constitution of several southern states.
- 2. Unitary form of government.
- 3. President weak in power, 3-year term, could not be consecutively re-elected
- 4 Raising an army needed consent of congress.
- 5. Freedom of religion and property protections.
- 6. Slavery legalized.
- 7. This constitution reflected the distrust in government felt by the traditionalistic southerners
- *This constitution did not las a decade.
The Statehood Constitution of 1845
- Included features reflecting southern traditionalistic culture
- - Limited governors power
- - Biennial legislature sessions
- - Two terms for most state officials
- Included features reflecting spanish/mexican cultural heritage.
- - Women granted full property rights ex: property manage
- - Community property
The Confederacy Constitution of 1861
- 1. Very similar to the constitution of 1845- government structure is about the same. Except for prohibition against emancipation of slaves.
- 2. Limited executive authority
- 4. Two year terms for most state officials.
- 5. Included provisions seceding from the Union and joining the confederacy.
- 6. Reflected Southern Traditionalistic P.C
The Readmission Constitution of 1866
- 1. Approved under presidential reconstruction
- 2. Abolished slavery
- 3. Ordinances of secession nullified
- 4. Secession rights removed
- -getting southern states the idea that they could leave the union if they wanted to
- 5. Wartime debts of the state repudiated
- 6. With respect to A.A rights it would...
- 7. Overturned by the reconstruction acts passed by U.S congress.
- 8. Many features reflected the political reality of the defeat of the confederacy but still included many of the Traditionalistic details of the two earlier statehood constitutions
- -slavery given up, traditionalistic P.C because structure remains the same.
The Reconstruction Constitution of 1869
- 1. Approved under the supervision of the Federal Government, military rule
- 2. Centralized power in the hands of the state government. Local government moves to state government. This increases its power.
- 3. Strong governor with 4 year term and extensive appointive powers.
- 4. Public schools are centralized (up to state level)
- 5. Annual legislature sessions
- 6. Most state Executive branch officials given 4 year terms and higher salaries
- 7. Local government was substantially weakened and county courts abolished
- 9. The planter class removed from control (those with power in society removed form govt.)
- 10. Modern forward looking constitution in terms of power, machinery of government and organization.
- 11. Hated because it was a radical departures from past constitutions and was contrary to southern P.C.
The Constitution of 1876
- 1. Current constitution
- 2. 1875 convention composed of "old Texans"
- 3. The delegates of the 1875 constitutional convention had 3 major goals
- -weaker state government
- -place limits on fiscal power of the state
- -insure that reconstruction abuses would never occur again
- 4. Reflects anti-government belief of the Traditionalistic/Individualistic P.C of Texas
- 5. Shorter terms in office
- 6. Many state and local governments were made elective (this weakened govt power)
- 7. severe limitation placed on the ability of the government to act
- 8. Powers of both legislature and governor were curtailed
- 9. Local gov was strengthened (power decentralized)
- -local control of schools
- -local courts
- 10. Expanded on the ideas of limited government, present in earlier constitutions of 1836, 1845, 1861 and 1866
Positive and negative aspects of the Constitution of 1876
- Positive aspects: longer, detailed Bill of Rights-low tax-stronger local government puts power of government closer to the people. Limits ability to abuse power.
- Negative aspects: Hard for state to act due to power limitation
- -weak governor who shares power
- -Excessively long constitution about 87000 words
- -a lot of policy, amendments, each change to it makes it longer
- -looked at the past instead of the future needs
What actions do Bill of Rights in the Texas constitution of 1876 give?
- Government structure fairly weak
- Constitution is amended frequently, (474 times)
- Top 4 in amendments of all states
- Legislature Proposal requires 2/3 votes in each house of legislation.
Would change to the Constitution bring attention?
- change to the constitution often gets 10% or fewer voters, voting for constitutional amendments.
- Amendment voting takes place in odd numbered years.
- Amendments do not draw enough attention
- Ex: Texas lottery had a lot of attention but voter turnout was 14%
What is Federalism?
- A form of government in which a constitution distributes power between a central(national) government an subnational government called states.
- Each level has their own powers.
What is a Unitary System?
All of the power are given by national government. Some power may be delegated out. This Unitary system is a delegation.
What is a Confederal System?
State government exists and exercises what the central government says. It creates a central government too weak for it to act. Ex: U.N only holds powers that its given.
What are the Alternative Structures of government?
- Unitary System
- Confederal System
- Federalism finds middle group between the two extremes.
What are the advantages of Federalism?
- 1. Control Tyranny-power division shifts coalition of states
- 2. Allows Experimentation-a new policy may be tested at a low scale Ex: 1990 welfare reform
- 3. Seeks to ensure policy responsiveness-people and business can move "vote with their feet." states compete for residents
- 4. Gets government closer to people-greated opportunity to influence government
- 5. Policies may be tailored to local needs
How are powers divide between National and Subnational government?
Some powers given to National government others to state governments.
What are state government powers?
- Reserved Powers-10th amendment are not denied to states nor are given to Federal government. creation of local government
- Concurrent Powers-shared to national and state level
With what must the National government prove the state government?
- Government in U.S is democratically elected.
- Each state must have equal representation.
What does the state provide the National government?
- Refrain from doing things that would refrain other states from carrying out their responsibilities
- Protect states from insurrections, rebellions, foreign invasion.
- Contribute to U.S as a whole
- Elect legislature to represent each state
What are the requirements for Ratification?
3/4 agreement for approving constitutional amendments
What is National Supremacy?
- U.S supreme law of the land
- Made National government much stronger
- Carries out things that would be usually left to states.
How was National Supremacy achieved?
- 1. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
- Feds did not want to pay taxes to states.
- Implied powers derive from this case.
- 2. Federal Policy Innovation- Ex: Great Depression, Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Civil Rights Legislation of 1960's, Great society.
- Economic Policies-SSS, jobs created Federal aid during Depression.
- Social Policies Ex: Brown v. Board
- These have helped Federal government expand.
- Many parts of Federal government come up as we move along...time
- 3. Agressive use of Interstate commerce clause
- FDR's Court Packing Plan
- Ened up affecting trade
- Allowed for Fed expansion from 1930-1970
What are techniques used by Federal government to make states comply with their requests?
- Cross-cutting requirement
- Cross-over requirement
What is Cross-Cutting Requirement?
- Conditions of Federal aid apply across the board to all or most federal government programs.
- Ex: if do not comply Fed aid may be lost; during Civil rights act, ending discrimination
What is Cross-Over Requirement?
Failure to act in on program would result in penalties or sanction in another program. Ex: Minimum Drinking age would loose 5% highway funds.
What is Horizontal Federalism?
Rules and guidelines that guide.
What is the Full faith and Credit Clause?
- Public records are recognized as valid in other states
- Ex: Marriage licence
What are Interstate Privileges and Immunities?
- Everyone must know their privileges and immunities of government. Cannot discriminate.
- Mean for full protection of the law
- -No discriminatory taxes
What are Extraditions?
Criminals are to be Extradited to state in which the crime was committed.
What are the factors that explain why people do not vote?
- 1. Voting is irrational-election outcome wont change by one vote.
- 2. Higher educated individuals are more likely to vote.
- 3. SES higher income level more likely someone will vote, they have more at stake.
- 4. Low political efficacy/political alienation-people feel voiceless. Think that government does not care about them
- 5. Registration Requirements-must register to vote
- In Texas you must register 30 days in advance.
- 6. Party competition-when party competition increases voter turnout increases...
What are some Tactics Limiting Minority Voting Participation?
- The White Primary-to vote you had to be white
- Poll Taxes-must pay to vote, had disproportionate effect on A.A. Georgia 1st state to use Poll Taxes
- Literacy Text-to vote one must know how to read (this also had a disproportionate effect keeping down minority voting rate)
What was the 24th amendment of 1964?
Poll Taxes declared unconstitutional
What was the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices
What is political Participation?
Taking part in activities that are related to governance.
What are types and frequency of participation by American Citizens?
- 1. Running for public office-21%
- 2. Becoming active in political parties and campaigns-4-5%
- 3. Contributing to campaigns 10%
- 4. Wearing a button or bumper sticker-15%
- 5. Writing or calling a public official-17-20%
- 6. Belonging to a political organization-30-35%
- 7. Talking to others about politics 30-35%
- 8. Voting 30-50%
- 9. NOT PARTICIPATING-30-40%
How is participation in U.S compared to other nations?
- Voting at national levels is lower than other industrialized nations
- Participation in state politics is lower than in most other industrialized nations.
- Participation in state politics is lower than the national level and lowest at the local level
- *Participation decreases from highest -->lowest level of government.
What is Texas' voter turnout?
Texas ranks near the bottom 46-48% in both national and state election. Low compared to the rest of the country.
What was the Motor Voter law of 1900's?
Required states to allow you to register to vote when getting drivers license. An attempt to increase voter turnout but it did not work.
Types of Participants verba and Nie
- Voting specialists
- Parochial Participants
- Complete Activists
What are inactives?
People who don't vote
What are voting specialists?
People who only vote
What are Parochial Participants?
People who become active in politics only when an issue affects them.
What are Campaigners?
Activity, like competition that comes with patron politics
What are Communalists?
- People who don't like division of partisan campaign. Vote but not much participation.
- Form habitats, food banks...non competitive.
What are Complete Activists?
They are in campaign, and coach little league...involved in everything partisan to non partisan activities.
What are some reasons for low political participation in Texas?
- Historical Legacies-things that would diminish minority voting in the past
- Social and Economic Factors-minorities had low voter turnout rates so Texas has low rate
- Party Competition-People are more likely to vote since they don't know who will win
- Region-southern states have lowest voter rates, most have traditionalistic P.C; so voting might be discouraged.
What are the voting requirements in Texas?
- 1. Be 18 years of age
- 2. Be registered 30 days before the election
- 3. Be a U.S citizen
- 4. Texas, similar to 32 other states, allow registration by mail.
What can a qualified individual do to loose the right to vote, today?
- Be a convicted felon.
- -aslong as time for felony is being served, right to vote is lost. Ex: probation, parole; voting reinstated once everything is paid off.
What is an Interest Group?
A formed association of individuals.
What are some types of interest groups?
- Business Groups
- Occupational/Professional Groups
- Public Interest Groups
What are Occupational/Professional interest groups?
- Groups directly/indirectly regulated by state
- Ex: teachers need license, other groups might need license to work.
What are Public Interest groups?
- Not seeking material benefit
- Aim to public interest,..sierra club
- -Good government group: view government and inform the people Ex: common cause, american civil...
What are some strategies used by interest groups?
- Financial/Electoral Support
- Conducting Public Relations/Public Education Campaigns.
What is Financial/Electoral support by interest groups?
- Support political campaign to further own cause.
- Doesn't necessary buy legislature but they do get access, try and convince them to support their legislation.
- Electoral-they get people to vote
What is Lobbying?
- Direct contact of government officials in support of opposition of certain policy.
- Main Lobbying occurs by Interest groups
- Lobbying can serve purpose in the Political system, inform legislators
What are Conducting Public Relations/Public Education Campaigns?
- Convince state voters of candidate view.
- Ex: they inform with commercials, because voters are likely to influence state legislature.
- Certain campaigns might need voter support.
What are factors related to interest group influence?
- 1.Diversity of state industry-more diverse state industry, the less interest group influence.
- 2. Party Strength-The greater the party strength the less influential interest groups are likely to be.(candidate may become dependent of interest group if party is weak)
- 3.Professionalism-Serving legislature fulltime job. The more professional state legislature the less influential interest groups will be.
- 4. State Political Culture-
- Moralistic P.C-will make interest groups have little influence.
- Traditionalistic P.C-no problem to maintain strength of interest group influence
- Individualistic P.C-will not strengthen nor weaken interest groups
- 5. Government Fragmentation-the greater the government fragmentation the influential interest groups will be. Ex: having separately elected officials, the executive branch is being fragmented. This gives I.G more channels of influence. They are more open to I.G message.
What are some regulations of interest groups?
- Financial contributions
What are current Interest Group regulations in Texas?
- 1. Individuals who receive more than $1000 in one calendar quarter as pay for lobbying
- 2. Those who spend more than $500 in gifts, awards or entertainment to influence legislature...for individuals, corporations or groups
- *Each year about 1500 groups and lobbyist register.
Who is not required to register as Lobbyist?
- People in state agencies are not reported. they don't have to register if they work for government.
- Lawyers also do not have to register.
- Most states may limit pact contributions to individual candidates. Texas has no limit on tax contributions.