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Infancy (birth to 18 months)
Trust vs. Mistrust
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
- Children need to develop a sense of personal
- control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads
- to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt
- Children need to begin asserting control and power
- over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of
- purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
- disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
School Age (6 to 11 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority
- Children need to cope with new social and academic
- demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results
- in feelings of inferiority.
Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal
- identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while
- failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Young adults need to form intimate, loving
- relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships,
- while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Work and Parenthood
- Adults need to create or nurture things that will
- outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change
- that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
- accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the
Maturity(65 to death)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Reflection on Life
- Older adults need to look back on life and feel a
- sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom,
- while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.