Urban Soc

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vivianwa
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198959
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Urban Soc
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2013-02-08 19:56:39
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urban soc
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urban soc
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  1. What are the two analytical approaches to urban sociology?
    Urbanization and urbanism
  2. Urbanization
    the process of city metro growth and deveopment, macro level, ecological studies
  3. Urbanism
    The behavioral repsone to living in an urban/surburban setting, the social and behavioral consequences of urbanization, micro level, social psychological studies
  4. Three Urban Myths
    • Cities are inhabited by poor people and minority group members
    • cities are disorderly places without positive social relationships
    • cities are post apocalyptic wastelands
  5. What are the reasons for the various theories
    • massive population growth
    • industrial revolution
    • massive urbanization
  6. European originators of urban sociology
    • Tonnies
    • durkheim
    • weber
    • simmel
  7. Tonnies
    • gemeinschaft vs. gesellchaft
    • traditional vs. urban society
    • negative view of urbanization
  8. durkheim
    • mechanical solidarity vs. organic solidarity
    • negative view of urbanization
  9. weber
    • traditional vs. rational socities
    • negative view, but saw some positives
  10. simmel
    • blase attitude
    • primary vs. secondary relationships
  11. American urban sociology thinker
    wirth
  12. wirth
    3 main factors that produced urbanism
  13. what are the 3 main factors that produced urbanism
    • size
    • density
    • heterogenity
  14. what are the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives
    • urban/human ecology- 1970s
    • new urban sociology-includes political economy approach in textbook
  15. urban ecology pioneers
    • robert park
    • ernest burgess
    • luois wirth
  16. what school is urban ecology under?
    the chicago school
  17. what is ecology?
    study of relationships between organism within an environment, borrowed terms like adaptation, competition invasion-sucession
  18. view of urban ecology
    views the social and spatial structure of the city as a functional outcome of natural processes of comeptition and adaptaion of the population to its environment
  19. Key assumptions of urban ecology
    • spatial structure is natural and a result of free market forces
    • spatial sturture results in the most efficient use of urban space- maximizes benefit to the largest number of people
    • direct planning on the part of powerful individual actor plays reltively little role in shaping spatial structure
  20. concentric zone theory
    • urban ecology
    • deveoped by park and burgess
    • tried to create general model for cities- unsuccessful- that explained how different groups and land use functions are distributed
    • belive city is sorting machine
  21. Contemporary ecology
    • explaining how the population shapes the urban environment in adpating to constantly changing environmental and technological conditions
    • POET
  22. POET
    • contemporary ecology
    • population, social organization, environment, technology
  23. New Urban Sociology
    pays more attention to isses of social inequality and social conflict and less attention to chnaging technology and functional adaptation
  24. New Urban sociology main points
    • stresses the use of power, domination and resources in shpaing cities
    • focuses on factors like interest and actions of political elites
    • examines relationship between cities and borader global economic forces
  25. New Urban sociology 5 main themes
    • cities are the result of the search for profit
    • cities are linked in a world capitalist system
    • capital in the world system is easily moved but locations-cities are fixed
    • politics, circumstances and individual actors matter
    • business elites and urban residents value land for different reasons
  26. values vs. exchange values
    • new urban sociology
    • ???
  27. Overall trends of urbanization
    • urban living is a relatively new thing
    • rapid urbanization within the past 200 years
  28. 3 eras of urban history
    • pre-urban history
    • pre-industrial urban epoch
    • industrial urban epoch
  29. Pre -urban epoch
    • occupies most of human history
    • happende during hunting and gathering period
    • nomadic life style precluded city life
  30. pre-industrial epoch
    • agrictural revolution chnaged functions of villages and gave rise ot real towns
    • allowed for first substantial and reltively stable agricultrual surplus- which increased popultion and specialzation and social stratification
    • very slow process
  31. industrial epoch
    • modern urban form
    • did not start until the start of the industrial revolution
  32. 3 types of cities
    • commerical city
    • industrial city
    • corporate city
  33. commercial city
    • deveoped in the early 17th century
    • first colonies like boston rhode isalnd ect
    • served as administration/political centers and commerical ports
  34. Industrial city
    • 1840
    • new means of production, large scale factory production, long distance trade
    • fed massive rural to urban migration
  35. Key factors in where cities grew
    • urban growth followed same east to west population growth
    • enviornmental, natural transportation routes and resources
    • land speculation- buy land from govt and then convince people that the city has strong commercial future
  36. Corporate city
    • economic activity decentralized- edge cities
    • dependence on paper profits- as opposed to manufacturing
    • chnaging role in city center- decrease in retail and increase in corporate offices
  37. regional patterns in city development
    • midwest and northeast dominated urban deveopment because
    • they develop as centers of trade, south centered on plantation economies, south became dependent on north for economic survival
  38. Major changes in regional patterns
    • started in 1970s
    • growth of the sunbelt- population growth, biggest growth indutries- high tech high skills industries, service industries and energy industry
  39. Suburbanization
    • started as deconcentration
    • dramtic decentralization
  40. 4 stages in growth of suburbs
    • walking/horse car era
    • electric street car and railroad era
    • recreational automobile era
    • freeway era
  41. Consequences of suburban growth
    • race and ethnicity
    • age/life cycle
    • socioeconomic status
  42. Suburbanization of everything
    businesses employment, apartment buildings, entertainment culture, deveopment of edge cities
  43. Urban crisis
    • boom in suburbs reuslted in decline of many central cities which led to the creation of economic and social problems espeically the movment of jobs
    • resulting in mismatch hypotheis, overburdened city services, tax base eroded and loss of political power

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