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where does absorption of nutrients mostly take place in the GIT? where does absorption of water mostly occur?
- small intestine for nutrient absorption
- large intestine for water absorption
where does fermentation start?
what are some signs of poor dental health?
- quidding, abnormal head position during chewing
- loss of condition
what 3 things does microbes produce when breaking down fibrous/non-fibrous carbohydrates?
- volatile fatty acids
- gas (wasted energy)
- vitamins B and K
How long does it take a horse to be off feed before microbial numbers decline? how long until the microbes are able to repopulate once back on food?
- decr. if food withheld for >8hr
- takes up to 1 wk to repopulate
what specialized bacteria take over when too much CHO reaches cecum undigested?
bacillus, lactobacillus, streptococcus
How does high starch diet lead to colic and laminitis?
excess starch reaches colon undigested --> normal microbes die off/CHO microbes over populate --> produce lactic acid --> mucosa damage/impaired motility --> colic and endotoxemia from mucosal damage =>laminitis
nutritional requirements of most horses may be met by feeding what?
good quality hay/pasture + water + trace mineral salt block
what is daily water requirement?
- 50ml/kg/day (8-10 gallons/day; mostly periprandial)
- *depends also on horses environment/workload/etc
How many mcal/day does horse need for maintenance?
how many mcal/day does pleasure/light work horse need vs. moderate work vs. heavy/intense work?
- L: ~20mcal/day
- M: ~25mcal/day
what % of fiber/forage feeds are crude fiber? how much of the horses overall diet should be composed of these feeds?
- 28-38% crude fiber
- fiber > 50% diet per day
What % of the horse's body weight per day should be comprised of forage feed?
- 1.5-2% of body wt (in pounds)/day
- (~ 20 lb of hay per day)
What VFA's are produced from fiber digestion? How are they used by the body?
- acetate - used directly at muscle cell for energy
- proprionate and butyrate undergo metabolism in liver --> proprionate for gluconeogenesis but butyrate less important
why are meal fed horses more likely to develop gastric ulcers?
unable to maintain feed bolus so greater risk for acid injury
what limits horses' ability to digest starches?
limited supply of amylase from pancreas for proper digestion
what are 3 components of plants, which can be utilized for energy and which remains undigested? what enzyme is needed to break down the plants?
- cellulose and hemicellulose fermented for energy
- lignin remains 100% undigested --> gas produced
- enzyme = cellulase
What is more digestible: mature/stemmy or immature/leafy/small stem hay? where is protein found in hay?
- immature/leafy more digestible
- protein in the leaves
What is minimum fiber content in "complete" feeds?
What is fiber content of beet pulp, another forage option? How is it prepared to avoid esophageal choke? what mineral is beet pulp high in?
- < or = 28%
- dehydrated so add water
- high in Ca (low in protein ~10%)
what is fiber content of bran (outer shell of grain kernels)? is this a high or low density feed?
- 15% fiber
- low density feed (requires a lot to meet fiber needs; less suitable than beet pulp as fiber supplement)
what is concern with turning horse out to fresh spring grasses if he is not accustomed to it? what time of day is safest to start exposing horse to this?
- high CHO content can trigger colic/laminitis
- early morning best for grazing since less NSC in the grass
what are examples of NSC or "concentrates"? what type of horse may require this added to the diet?
- oats, corn, molasses
- (oats safer than corn)
- race horses/high performance; lactating mares, underwt/thin
How much grain can be fed per day and per meal?
- 2g starch/kg causes digestive upset
- safe to feed <2lb grain/meal so break grain feedings into 2-4 meals to meet the total amount needed
How does fat compare to CHO as energy supplement? which vitamins are absorbed with fat?
- fat = cheaper than concentrates and provides more energy in less volume, safer than concentrates
- vitamins ADEK
What % of diet should be fat in pasture horse? pleasure? performance? growing/lactating?
- pasture: 3%
- pleasure: 3-6%
- performance: 6-12%
- growing/lactating: 14-16%
Owner wants to add corn oil or safflower oil to the diet. How much can they give per day?
up to one cup twice daily
what part of the GIT is protein digested and absorbed? which protein is critical for growth
how much of the diet should be protein? which feeds are considered high in protein?
- legumes (alfalfa, soybeans)
what is the difference between horse getting too much water vs. fat soluble vitamins?
- excess water soluble will be excreted in urine
- excess fat soluble gets stored so can lead to toxicity
which 2 vitamins are essential and must come through the diet?
A and E
What is vitamin A? what are the functions?
- B carotene -->retinol
- essential for vision, skin health, bone/muscle growth, and reproduction
where can Vit A be found normally? who needs this supplemented?
- high quality leafy forages/pastures
- young/growing (poorly transported through placenta, but good in colostrum)
What is vitamin E? what are its functions?
- enhances immune function, antioxidant, DNA synthesis
what are sources for vit E? who needs this supplemented? what happens if deficient?
- high quality hays/grains (80% can be lost in baling process)
- white muscle disease; neuron disease in >2yr olds
what is function and source of Vit. D?
- essential for Ca/P absorption from small intestine; cell differentiation
- source: UV light
who needs vit. d supplements? what happens if deficient? what happens if excess?
- no need to supplpement as long as UV exposure and high quality food
- (no rickets in horses)
- too much Vit. D --> Ca removed from bones and deposited elsewhere like heart
what is source of vit K? Where is vit K stored? what is its function?
- source= forage feed/colonic microbes make it
- stored in liver
- needed for coagulation
What are the names for various forms of B vitamins and what are the functions?
- B1=thiamin for nerve transmission (made by colon microbes, in forage)
- B2=Riboflavin for ATP synthesis/lipid metabolism
- B12=Cobalamin for RBC synthesis (with folate)
what is another name for Vit C? function? source?
- ascorbic acid
- fx: antioxidant
- body can make, no need to supplement
what are the micominerals needed in equine diet?
- Cu, Zn
- Iodine, Iron
- Mn, Selenium
what are the macromolecules needed in equine diet?
what mineral is in high concentration in forage and how is this reflected in urine?
- excess Ca forms calcium carbonate crystals
what mineral is in high concentration in grain and is primarily responsible for formation of ATP?
which two minerals compete for absorption from small intestine?
Ca and P
what should Ca:P ratio be in adult? in growing horse?
- adult: 1.4:1 (up to 6:1 acceptable)
- grow: 2:1
what is primary extracellular fluid cation? What are the responsibilities of this cation?
- ensure CNS stability, generate action potential, cofactor in glucose shuttles
what is primary extracellular anion? what is the function of this anion?
- acid-base balance, component of stomach acid
What macromineral is imporant in neuromuscular path and part of Na/K ATPase pump? where do horses get this mineral from?
- found in forages/feedstuffs
what is primary intracellular fluid cation? what happens if excess of this mineral is ingested?
- excess excreted in urine
what is function of selenium? what is result of Se deficiency?
- white muscle disease
Neonates (up to 1mo) get sole nutrition from mares milk, what is their daily digestible energy requirement?
- (as compared to adult with 32kcal/kg/day; heavy work at 64kcal/kg/d)
how much weight should neonate be gaining every day?
2-4 lbs per day
at what age do foals actually start ingesting fiber/grain?
4-6 weeks of age
what is protein, fat, and fiber content of mare's milk replacer? Is this an acidified or alkaline diet?
- protein: >20%
- fat: >20%
- acidified to enhance digestibility and maintain quality w/reconstitution
when should you introduce creep feeding? when should you start weaning?
- by what age have most horses fully reached adult body weight?
- creep: 2 months old
- wean at 3-6mo
- adult wt: 3-4 yr
for geriatric horse (>20yr) what is goal BCS? what 3 organ systems are we most concerned about?
- 4.5-6 of 9
- kidney, heart, lungs
how does geriatric metabolic needs compare to adult?
does not slow metabolic activity with age so still needs 1.5-2% body wt (in lbs) /day, possibly even more
with aerobic respiration, what is heart rate and what is main source of energy?
- HR <150
- VFA (glucose should be last option here, VFAs enough)
- O2 for energy production
with aerobic respiration, what is heart rate and what is main source of energy?
- HR >150
- VFAs alone not enough, need glucose/NSC
how much concentrate does breeding stallion require? how much hay?
- concentrate 0.5%
- hay 1.75-2% BWT
when does pregnant mare require additional nutrition?
- at 3rd trimester (>20mcal/day) and especially when nursing
- (feed at 16mcal/day during first 8mo)
what vitamins are especially important in lactating mare? what % body wt/day of hay is needed?