chapter 3 review

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chapter 3 review
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psychology
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  1. what is th influence of hereditarry and environment on behavior?
    a specific gene plays a small part in creating a given behavior. Environmental events such as smoking during pregnancy, early child hood experience, stress or trauma and enriched environments all interact with genes to make specific behavior more or less likely
  2. what are the research results on gene-by-environment interaction?
    How genetic differences interact with environment to produce certain behaviors in some people but not in others
  3. a larege molecule that contains genes
    DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acid)
  4. a coiled up thread of DNA
    Chromosome
  5. Small segments of DNA than contain information for producing proteins
    Genes
  6. all the genetic information in DNA
    Genome
  7. genes that show their effects even if there is only one allele for that trait in that pair
    Dominant Genes
  8. genes that show their effects only when both alleles are the same
    Recessive Genes
  9. differences in the length of DNA sequences
    Genetic Marker
  10. the extent to which a characteristic is influenced by genetics
    Heritability
  11. the entire genetic makeup of an organism
    Genotype
  12. the organisms observed characteristics
    Phenotype
  13. study of changes in the new way genes are turned o or off without a change in the sequence of DNA
    Epigenetics
  14. what does the concept of behavioral genetics refer to and what are the basis principes?
    • The scientific role of hereditary in behavior

    1. The relationship between specific genes and behavior is complex

    2. Most specific behaviors derive from dozens or hundreds of genes not one or two

    3. By studying twins behavioral geneticists may destagle the contribution of hereditary and environment to behavior

    The environment influences how and when genes affects behavior
  15. What is the difference between monogenic transmission and polygenic transmission?
    • Monogenic- the hereditary passing traits determined by single gene
    • polygenic is the process by which many genes interacts to create a single gene
  16. What is the epigenesis process?
    The way genes are turned on or off without a change in the sequences of DNA
  17. What are neurons?
    Cells that process and transmit information in the nervous system
  18. What is the difference between neurons and glial cells?
    Glial cells provide structural support, and promote efficient communication between neurons annd serve as scavengers removing cellular debris

    Neurons just transmit info to the nervous system
  19. What is the difference between sensory neurins, motor neurons, and interneurons?
    Sensory Neurons receive incoming sensiry information form the sense organs (eyes, ears, skin, tounge, and nose)

    Motor Neurons carry commands to movement form the brain to the muscles to the body

    Inter Neurons communicate only with other neurons
  20. the cell body and contains a nucleas and other  components needed for cell maintenance and function
    Soma
  21. Fingerlike projections form a neuron's soma that receives incoming message from other neurons
    Dendrites
  22. Long projections that extends from the soma it transmits electrical impulses toward the adjacent neurons and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters
    Axon
  23. At the end of the axon and contains tiny sacs of neurotransmitters
    Terminal Buttons
  24. The junction between an axon and the adjacent neurons where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
    Synapse
  25. The gap between neurons, the neurotransmitter carries the signal across the synaptic cleft
    Synapse gap (cleft)
  26. Fatty substance wrapped around some axons, which more efficiently
    Myelin Sheath
  27. Chemicals that transmit information between neurons
    Neurotransmitters
  28. Where are the neurons parts located?


    Soma
    - the cell

    Dendrites- extends from neurons soma (fingerlike projections)

    Axon- long projections that extend from the neurons soma

    Terminal Buttons- little knobs at the end of the axon

    Synapse- junctions between axon and the adjacent neurons

    Synapse gap (cleft)- the gap between neurons

    Myelin Sheath- fatty substance around axons

    Neurotransmitter- in the neuron
  29. What is the electrical chemical process that occurs when neurons (nerve cell) transmits information and release neurotransmission?
    Neurotransmission
  30. How does the information travel from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites of another?
    • The neural impulse travels down the axon,
    • in their terminal button, the impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
    • at the receptor site of the dendrite the neurotransmitter cause channels to open and changes the membrane potential, recepor will bind only with specific neurotransmitters.
  31. Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that tells post synaptic neurons not to five, it slow CNS activity, is necessary to regulate and control neural activity
    GABA
  32. Controls muscle movement and plays a role in mental process such as learning, memory, attention, sleeping, and dreaming.
    Acetycholine
  33. Released in a response to behaviors that feel good or are rewarding to the person or animal, also involved in voluntary motor control
    Dopamine
  34. A neurotransmitter with wide ranging effects, involved in dreaming and in controlling emotional states, especially anger, anxiety, and depression
    Serotonin
  35. The brain majors excitatory is important in learning, memory, neural processing, and brain development
    Glutamate
  36. a nuerotransmitter that arouses body systems (such as increasing heart rate)
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  37. Leads to physical aroused, activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration, and blood pressure
    Nonepinephrine
  38. what are the effects of having excessses or deficienceis of this nurotransmitter on our body, thoughts and/or behavior?
    Gaba- the central nervous system would have no brakes and could run out od control

    Acetylcholine- Muscle movement would not be controlled

    Dopamine- Some drugs increase dopamine activity and we beome addicted to them

    Serotin- Low levels of serotonin cause you to be anxious or have depression

    Glutamate- Without it it will decrease the chances a post synaptic neuron will fire

    Epinephrine- too much would increase the heart rate too much

    Nonepinephrine- low levels can cause ADHD
  39. What are the main functions of the two main divisions of the nervous system and how they are organized?
    Central- brain and spinal cord

    Nervous process incoming information system an crafts a response if one is needed

    Peripheral nervous system transmits information between the external environment and internal system of the body and the central nervous system



  40. What is the difference between grey and white brain matter?
    Grey matter is the brain tissue composed of neuron cell bodies

    White matter info communicated among different areas of the brain via long fibers of myelinated axons. because they are covered in myelin they are called white matter
  41. Brains ability to adopt new functions reorganize itself, or make new neural connections throught out life, as a function of experinece brain plasticity varies with age, beings stringest in infancy and early childhood gradually decreasing by age
    Neuroplasticity
  42. Development of new neurons growth of dendrites in existing neurons, and the formation of new synapses
    Neurogenesis
  43. Growth and formation of new dendrites
    Aborization
  44. Formation of entirely new synapses or connections with other neurons
    Synaptogenesis
  45. What are the main functions and locations of the three major regions of the brain and their corresponding structues?
    Hindbrain

    Midbrain

    Forebrain
  46. What are the main functions and locations of the three major regions of the brain and their corresponding structues? Hindbrain?
    The hindbrain regulates breathing, heart rate, arousal, and other basic functions of the body.

    • Medulla-regulates breathing,heart rate, and blood pressure
    • Location: Extending directly from the spinal cord

    • Pons- serves as a bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity
    • Location:between the midbrain and medulla

    • Cerebullum-involved in body movement, balance, coordination, fine-tuning motor skills, cognitive activities such as learning and language
    • Location: behind the brain stem 
  47. What are the main functions and locations of the three major regions of the brain and their corresponding structues?
    Midbrain
    Smallest of 3 parts, controls eye muscles, process auditory and visual information, intitiate vouluntary movement of body auditiry and visual information, initiate voluntary movement of body

    Location: On top of pons
  48. What are the main functions and locations of the three major regions of the brain and their corresponding structues?

    Forebrain
    largest part of brain, control cognitive, sensory, and motor fuction and regulates temperatue, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping, display of emotions

    Location: top of brain

    Cerebrum- upper most portion of brain 2 large halves of brain that are covered with convolution , or folds
  49. holding thing in mind while we solve problems controls impulses, creativity, and social awareness
    Frontal Lobe
  50. Make up top and rear sections of brain play important play important role in the sensation and perception to touch
    Parietal Lobes
  51. Lies directly below the frontal and parietal lobes and right behind the ear for hearing
    Temporal Lobes
  52. Rear of brain primary visual cortex vision, including shape, color shadow, light and orientation
    Occipital Lobes
  53. from bottom up- forst forebrain structure receives inout form ears, eyes, skin, and taste buds relays sensory information to the part of cerebral cortex sensory relay station
    Thalamus
  54. Middle of brain directly around the thalamus important in emotion and motivation
    Limbic System

    Includes: hypothalumus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus
  55. Directly below thalamus plays a vital role in learning and memory
    Hypothalumus
  56. Small almond shape structure located directly in front of the hippocampus has connections with many important brain regions and important for processing information especially related to fear
    Amyadala
  57.  thin outer layer of the cerebrum in which much human thought, planning, perception, and consciousness takes place
    Cerebral Cortex
  58. colection of structures surrounding the thalamus involved in voluntary motor control
    Basal Ganglia
  59. Belt like structure in the middle of the brain that plays an important role in attention and cognitive control
    Cingulate Gyrus
  60. Network of nerve fiber that runs up through both the hind brain and the mid brain, and cognitive control
    Reticular Formation
  61. Nerve fiber that connect the two hemisphere of the brain
    Corpus Callosum
  62. What are the main functions and location of the four lobes of cerebral cortex?
    Frontal: in front of brain, most important for thinking, planning, and integrating the brain activity

    Parietal: makes up the top and rear sections of the brain integrate the sensation and perception of touch

    Temporal: lies directly below the frontal and parietal lobes and right behind the ears (hearing is the main function)

    Occipital: occupy the rear if the brain visuak information is processed threw th eoccipital lobe
  63. What are the main functions and locations of the motor and sumato areas?
    Motor Cortex: descending form the top of the head towards the center of the brain (control the body right side)

    Suamato Sensory Cortex: front most portions of the parietal lobes receives input from the body right side
  64. What are the specialized functions associated with the two cerebral hemisphere (right and left)
    Left hemisphere: language, speech, and comprehension, receive in from the right side and controls the right side


    Right hemisphere: nonverbal information, percceptions, visual recognition and controls the left side of body
  65. Which of these two hemispheres seem to have specialized funcions associated with language ability, artistic ability, and emotional responding?
    Left Hemisphere
  66. Which of these two hemispheres seem to have specialized funciton that would become more apparent when problem solving requires attention to fine details and when problem solving requires creative solutions or insight?
    Right Hemisphere
  67. What are the main functions and location of the following endocine glands?
  68. Master endocrine gland of the body that controls the release of hormones from glands throughout the body.
    Pituary Gland

    Under the Hypothalamus Gland
  69. Sits in neck region releases hormones that control heart rate of metabolism
    Thyroid
  70. Releases hormones including insulin that play a vital role in regulating blood sugar levels
    Pancreas

    (Located in abdominal)
  71. Releases sex hormones that lead to development of sex characteristic ( such as body hair and breast development) sex drive, and other aspects of sexual maturation
    Testes
  72. Releases sex hormones that lead to development of sex characteristic ( such as body hair and breast development) sex drive, and other aspects of sexual maturation
    Ovaries
  73. Endocrine structure that release hormones important in regulating the  stress response and emotions they also help regulate heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar
    Adrenal Glands

    (Abdominal)
  74. What is the link between dopamine, epinephrine, nonepinephrine, and cortisol and the function of the adrenal gland during stress?
    The adrenal glands produce these catecholamine's: a class of chemicals which ANS activation
  75. What is the connection between the endocrine system and the nervous system?
    The endocrine system works in conjunction with the nervous system and in dynamic relationship with the brain
  76. What brain activity inforamtion do the following techniques provide in psychological research?
  77. Electroencephalgraphy (EEG)
    Measuring brain activity shows when brain activity occurs
  78. Magnetic Resource Imaging (MRI)
    Detailed images of the structure of the brain and other soft tissues
  79. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    measure blood flows to active areas in the brain
  80. What is the researchr esults obtained by tiffany field on the effect of touch (massaging) infants on cognitive and motor development
    They took 20 premature babies and massaged them

    and 20 premature babies and did not massage them

    The 20 that were massaged gained 47% more weight and they were more active  and alert

    At 8 months they were more cognitive developed and motor developed

    A mothers touch is absolutely necessary to maintain normal growth and development

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